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5. A Call for Vigorous Federal Leadership
Pages 42-46

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From page 42...
... By 2000, action by airports, industry, and local, state, and federal governments had reduced the noise-affected population to about 5 million people. This was achieved through a combination of research and technology that led to quieter jet engines, regulations that required new and existing commercial aircraft to meet more stringent noise standards, improved operational systems and procedures, and heavy government investments in palliatives such as subsidizing purchases of 42 additional land around airports, soundproofing buildings near airports, and rezoning property near airports to uses compatible with a relatively noisy environment.
From page 43...
... Primary responsibilities for developing advanced aircraft technologies for source noise reduction, however, are assigned to NASA, which has no independent source of funding to support aeronautics research. Indeed, within NASA's constrained budget, aeronautics research has fared poorly in competing against higher O '1 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Fiscal Year 1 ~ Noise and emissions research by FAA and NASA ~ Noise abatement (by FAA)
From page 44...
... These funds were provided to the Federal Aviation Administration, with the expectation that it would "work directly with" NASA to "advance aircraft engine noise research." Congress took this action because community opposition to aircraft noise is preventing the necessary expansion of some airports and because "aircraft noise results in millions of federal dollars being spent each year on mitigation measures, diverting funds which could be applied to capacity enhancement or safety projects" (Congress, 2001~. The committee endorses this action as a first step in reducing the imbalance in the allocation of aircraft noise funding.
From page 45...
... For example, a revenue-neutral change could be made to tax and fee structures so that quieter, cleaner aircraft pay lower taxes or fees than aircraft that generate more noise or higher levels of emissions. Alternatively, to support national environmental goals, the federal government could provide direct financial incentives to airlines that operate quieter aircraft with lower emissions just as the federal government now contracts with commercial airlines to participate in the civil reserve air fleet program to support national defense goals.
From page 46...
... . coordinates agency research and technology goals, budgets, and expenditures with national environmental goals and international standards endorsed by the federal government periodically reassesses environmental goals and related research programs to ensure that they reflect current understandings of the impact of specific aircraft emissions on the environment and human health takes advantage of the unique expertise of both government and industry personnel and reverses the current trend of lessening industry involvement in NASAsponsored environmental research and technology development FOR GREENER SKIES: REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AVIATION reallocates funds in accordance with long-term goals, shifting some resources from short-term mitigation in localized areas to the development of engine, airframe, and operational/air traffic control technologies that will lead to aircraft that are quieter, operate more efficiently, and produce fewer harmful emissions per revenue-pas senger-kilometer supports international assessments of the effects of aircraft emissions and the costs and benefits of various alternatives for limiting emissions expedites deployment of new technologies by maturing them to a high technology readiness level (i.e., technology readiness level 6, as defined by NASA)

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