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Executive Summary
Pages 1-6

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From page 1...
... It merely provides an opportunity for advanced technology to mitigate existing environmental impacts before the inevitable resumption of demand growth makes them worse. The technical challenges are too large and regulatory and economic incentives too small for industry acting alone to eliminate the environmental effects of the growth in air travel and the demand for aviation services.
From page 2...
... NASA and other agencies should sustain the most attractive noise reduction research to a technology readiness level high enough (i.e., technology readiness level 6, as defined by NASA) to reduce the technical risk and make it worthwhile for industry to complete development and deploy new technologies in commercial products, even if this occurs at the expense of stopping other research at lower technology readiness levels.
From page 3...
... Dramatic progress has 3 been made in all three of these crucial aspects, but the increased efficiencies of individual airplanes are not sufficient to decrease the total emissions of a global fleet growing in response to accelerating demand. For newly designed aircraft, advanced technology could reduce fuel consumption per revenue-passenger-kilometer by about 1 percent per year for the next 15 to 20 years.
From page 4...
... ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS AND BENEFITS The conflict between the increased demand for aviation services and more stringent environmental constraints mandates a careful examination of the associated economic and political realities and policies. The government has responsibilities for fostering aviation as a contributor to the national infrastructure, for defining realistic environmental goals, and for developing environmental policies and regulations to meet such goals.
From page 5...
... At the same time, government intervention is important to encourage manufacturers, operators, and consumers of aviation services to reduce the environmental consequences of aircraft operations, which will sometimes increase costs. There are international implications, too, because many domestic rules are written in accordance with multinational agreements established by the International Civil Aviation Organization; also, other nations sometimes unilaterally establish rules that affect the operations and competitiveness of U.S.
From page 6...
... Success requires commitment and leadership at the highest level as well as a national strategy and man that does the following: FOR GREENER SKIES: REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AVIATION coordinates agency research and technology goals, budgets, and expenditures with national environmental goals and international standards endorsed by the federal government periodically reassesses environmental goals and related research programs to ensure that they reflect current understandings of the impact of specific aircraft emissions on the environment and human health takes advantage of the unique expertise of both government and industry personnel and reverses the current trend of lessening industry involvement in NASAsponsored environmental research and technology development reallocates funds in accordance with long-term goals, shifting some resources from short-term mitigation in localized areas to the development of engine, airframe, and operational/air traffic control technologies that will lead to aircraft that are quieter, operate more efficiently, and produce fewer harmful emissions per revenue-pas senger-kilometer supports international assessments of the effects of aircraft emissions and the costs and benefits of various alternatives for limiting emissions expedites deployment of new technologies by maturing them to a high technology readiness level (i.e., technology readiness level 6, as defined by NASA) and providing incentives for manufacturers to include them in commercial products and for users to purchase those products Aviation is critically important to individuals, the economy, and the nation, yet the U.S.

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