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Biographical Memoirs Volume 81 (2002) / Chapter Skim
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Emilio Gino Segrč
Pages 294-317

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From page 295...
... M Corbino, while also howling a traveling Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship that permitted him to visit and work with 0.
From page 296...
... with Glenn Seaborg en cl others on the fission properties of 239Pu uncler slow neutron bombardment after its discovery in 1941. He also inventec!
From page 297...
... Only a brief sketch is given here. He was born in Tivoli, Italy, on January 30, 1905, into a prosperous Jewish family originally from northern Italy.
From page 298...
... his compulsory military service (officers' training school in 1928) , spent a six-month hiatus back at the Physics Institute, en cl then received a commission as a second lieutenant in the antiaircraft artillery stationecl near Rome.
From page 299...
... the anomalous dispersion in bane! spectra of molecules causecl by the accumulation of absorption lines near the head of a band.
From page 300...
... SLOW NEUTRONS In 1933 Fermi en c! his colleagues began to shift emphasis from atomic spectroscopy to nuclear physics en cl Fermi clevotecl more en cl more of his time to experiment.
From page 301...
... to the discovery that mocIeration of the neutrons' energies enhanced manyfoIcl their effectiveness in production of radioactive isotopes of the targets. The field!
From page 302...
... With considerable difficulty they finally succeeded in isolating three distinct decay periods (90, 80, and 50 days) that eventually turned out to be two isotopes, 95Tc and 97Tc, of technetium, the name given later by Perrier and Segre to the first man-made element.89 Rightly proud of having filled a gap in the periodic table by their discovery of technetium, Segre apparently was disturbed by lack of recognition in Italy and hv ner ~ .
From page 303...
... Wah! on the isolation of the isotope 239Pu by slow neutron bombardment of uranium en cl then stucliecl its chemistry en cl nuclear fission properties.
From page 304...
... LOS ALAMOS In the spring of 1943 Segre accepted Oppenheimer's invitation to join the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos. There he heaclecl a group inclucling Chamberlain and the spontaneous fission rates Of 235U anct Mu.
From page 305...
... One of these was the mollification of a nuclear lifetime by alteration of the chemical environment, specifically the electron capture rate in 7Be.13 In 1948 Segre's group began experiments on nucleonnucleon scattering with the 90-M eV neutron en cl proton beams proclucecl from cleuterons acceleratecl in the ~ 84inch synchrocyclotron. The ciata on elastic neutron-proton scattering showocl the first evidence for strong exchange forces in the nucleon-nucleon interaction.
From page 306...
... With the discovery after the war of various unstable particles, the evidence for charge conjugation symmetry mounted. Lawrence en cl colleagues clesignecl the bevatron to have a beam of 6-GeV protons, nicely sufficient to procluce proton-antiproton pairs (if they existed in collisions of protons with a stationary nucleon target.
From page 307...
... A novel mass spectrometer was built en cl the Cherenkov detector was constructed by Chamberlain en cl WiegancI. In the final stages a crucial veto Cherenkov detector was aciclec!
From page 308...
... The counter experiment confirmed the bubble chamber results but could add little.l7 Segre blamecl the theorists for their incorrect prediction of the resonant energy. Segre's life changecl as it floes for most upon receiving the Nobel Prize.
From page 309...
... after retirement. In the immediate postwar years he eclitecl an influential three-volume handbook on experimental nuclear physics.
From page 310...
... statistical mechanics. Upon his return in 1946 he taught fairly regularly the unclergracluate quantum mechanics en cl nuclear physics courses.
From page 311...
... Steiner became a member of the Segre-Chamberiain group at the Racliation Laboratory en cl then a faculty member in the Berkeley Physics Department. He served as clepartmental chair from 1992 to 1995.
From page 312...
... EMILIO SEGRE VISUAL ARCHIVES A legacy of Emilio Segre is the Emilio Segre Visual Archives of the American Institute of Physics. Located in College Park, MarylancI, as part of the Center for the History of Physics, the Segre Visual Archives is the result of a donation by Rosa Segre after Emilio's death, subsequently augmented by a bequest from her on her cleath in 1997.
From page 313...
... Steiner for his helpful comments and attention to historical accuracy. Spencer Weart kindly supplied the background on the creation of the Emilio Segre Visual Archives at the American Institute of Physics.
From page 314...
... ~ . Experimental Nuclear Physics, 3 vols.
From page 315...
... Rasetti. Artificial radioactivity produced by neutron bombardment.
From page 316...
... Possible production of radioactive isotopes of element 85.
From page 317...
... Antiproton interaction cross sections.


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