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4. Evaluation and Experimentation
Pages 164-197

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From page 164...
... One or more factors generally prompt reconsideration of the remedy. As discussed in Chapter 2, the remedy may prove to be ineffective in reaching cleanup goals, which has occurred in thousands of cases.
From page 165...
... Deciding on the best course is aided by the parallel track of evaluation and experimentation called for in ASM. The cleanup process at most Navy sites involves a great deal of uncertainty because of an incomplete understanding of contaminant sources, pathways, and receptors, because of the variable performance of technological solutions, and because of the limited ability to establish and maintain proper institutional controls (NRC, 1999a)
From page 166...
... Ideally, this should happen on the scale of an individual site, but it can also occur at a much larger, program-level scale. At the level of an individual site, evaluation and experimentation are actions designed to verify the existing hypotheses about the site, to explore the effectiveness of other more risky remediation technologies, or to discover something that can otherwise reduce uncertainty during the cleanup process.
From page 167...
... The evaluation and experimentation track of ASM specifically accommodates potential problems with remedy effectiveness by improving the understanding of the site (site conceptual model) and suggesting ways to enhance the performance of the existing remedy or to guide the selection of an alternative remedy.
From page 168...
... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Critical Scenarios for Evaluation and Experimentation Certain remedial approaches involve greater uncertainty than others and necessitate evaluation and experimentation to improve understanding
From page 169...
... Intensive monitoring of these parameters during remedy operation is not common and should occur as part of the evaluation and experimentation track if the remedy is to be optimized and reliably used at other sites. The case study in Box 4-2 illustrates how extensive f~eld-scale studies E :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: .:.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::~::::::::::::::::~:::::~:~::::::::::::::::::::::: ::~::::::::: ::: a ~r' m ~ n ~~ E ^n = ~ ~ i hii ~ = ~ l ~ n i n ~ l ~ as n =^m ~ no a ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ %~ A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ W ~ ~ ~ W ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ At ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :: :::::::::::: ::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A: :: : :::"i.
From page 170...
... 170 Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilities: Adaptive Site Management : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :: : :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~: ~ r:: ::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: := ::: - A::: _ ~ _ ~ , ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::: ::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::: ~ t t~ X~ l.~ l.
From page 171...
... Evaluation and Experimentation 171 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :: :::::: :::::::: ' :: :::: :::: :: -:: 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .
From page 172...
... Furthermore, the protocols for reducing uncertainty in microbial reaction processes developed during the study at Aberdeen Proving Ground should assist other site managers and investigators. Other examples of remedial approaches with high uncertainty are the use of containment, solidification and stabilization techniques, and institutional controls to reduce the risks at a site through the elimination of one or more exposure pathways.
From page 173...
... Early input from the public on research studies at the site can help to expand the number of acceptable remediation technologies that are considered. The Role of Expert Panels There are many situations where an asymptote in cleanup effectiveness has been reached prior to meeting cleanup goals, but there has been
From page 174...
... MAKING RESEARCH PART OF THE CLEANUP PARADIGM In order for the evaluation and experimentation track of ASM to be useful, site managers will have to adopt a new, prospective mindset after implementation of the remedy. It will require thinking about what remedies will be available in five years that would allow changing a remedy that is likely to not meet cleanup goals.
From page 175...
... The following section describes programs that currently provide some research, development, and field-scale evaluation of remediation technologies and thus may serve an important role in the evaluation and experimentation component of ASM. Participation in these research efforts should lead to improved understanding that will help the environmental restoration program in 30 years as well as right now.
From page 176...
... 176 .~ o so .' o .' in .F o in .~ z m a:' ~ .~ ~ g E o ce g E = A, o c, to, I ~ m O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 rD E ~ ~ ~ e .
From page 177...
... 177 y .~ 2 ' in .o .o . 0 ~ ~ ~ Q ~ o a)
From page 178...
... . Competitive research grants are provided for field demonstrations of promising innovative technologies through DoD's ESTCP.
From page 179...
... program also supports field demonstrations of technologies. There is an annual solicitation for host sites for the demonstration or evaluation of innovative technologies for hazardous waste cleanup in groundwater, soil, or sediment, and an annual solicitation for remedial technologies that can be demonstrated at previously selected sites.
From page 180...
... ASTD is meant to facilitate widespread deployment of these proven technologies. Technologies currently being deployed under the ASTD that are pertinent to Navy sites include permeable reactive barriers, enhanced bioremediation, alternative landfill covers, and thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction.
From page 181...
... This program, which was initiated in 1982, has provided a unique niche in being able to fund long-term process-oriented field research at selected sites. One example is the ongoing project begun in 1983 at a crude-oil spill site in Bemidji, Minnesota, which has provided fundamental knowledge and methods that are widely used to characterize natural attenuation of BTEX at other sites (Cozzarelli et al., 1999~.
From page 182...
... This information provides options in case an existing remedy approaches an asymptote prior to reaching cleanup goals. Although support of research and demonstrations at non-Navy sites also is critical in building a database on performance and cost effectiveness for innovative technologies, the Navy should consider emulating DOE's ASTD program.
From page 183...
... In addition, ITRC has a State Engagement Program that works to obtain multistate concurrence on the guidance documents that are produced, expediting the regulatory acceptance of new and emerging technologies. In 1992, TIO and the EPA's Office of Research and Development established the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF)
From page 184...
... An example of AFCEE involvement in information transfer and implementation of innovative technologies is the development of protocols, which were later reviewed and published as EPA documents, for evaluating monitored natural attenuation at petroleum hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent sites. AFCEE also completed an evaluation of the performance and cost of implementing natural attenuation as a remedy for fuel and chlorinated solvent contamination at multiple Air Force sites.
From page 185...
... These obstacles, and suggestions for how to create incentives to overcome them, can be broadly grouped into the following areas: resource obstacles, regulatory obstacles, timing issues, and socioeconomic barr~ers. Resource Issues Perhaps the most important issue is how to fund evaluation and experimentation activities at an individual site that will require additional resources beyond those needed to implement the chosen remedy.
From page 186...
... Similar trends are apparent in the military, such that it is difficult to get funding under the environmental restoration program for anything labeled as "research." At times, even the use of cleanup funds to supplement a study primarily funded through a program such as ESTCP has been stated to be inappropriate use of these funds. Thus, activities such as conducting treatability tests to later optimize a remedial action at a specific site may be allowed and funded, but it is much more difficult to fund research on a new remedy that is not part of the ongoing site-specific activity.
From page 187...
... Second, site managers may perceive evaluation and experimentation as somehow delaying completion of the project because time and resources must be spent on multiple activities. However, this assumes that the evaluation and experimentation activities will not prove useful in optimizing the existing remedy or helping to better understand a technology that will replace the existing remedy.
From page 188...
... 188 Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilities: Adaptive Site Management .............................................................................................................................
From page 189...
... Socioeconomic Issues Social and economic incentives to not invest in and utilize innovative technologies also present barriers to the evaluation and experimentation track of ASM. First, the market value of innovative remediation technology companies since 1990 has been poor.
From page 190...
... Many private sector companies and government PRPs prefer certainty. By definition, an innovative technology is less certain to achieve site cleanup goals.
From page 191...
... These included rat feeding studies using local contaminated soil as well as mineralogical and chemical extraction methods (NRC, 2002~. After review by the lead state agency, a community advisory group, and an independent expert in the field, results from the study led to revised cleanup goals based on the measured limited bioavailability of the metals to humans.
From page 192...
... Improved understanding of a site through evaluation and experimentation can reduce the amount of uncertainty associated with the risk estimate at a site and suggest ways to enhance the performance of the existing remedy. Evaluation and experimentation of new, innovative technologies can also help guide the selection of an alternative in case the remedy is ineffective in meeting cleanup goals.
From page 193...
... Congress should make sure there are funds available to support the evaluation and experimentation track of adaptive site management. Although significant research efforts have been underway, unless the federal government provides new resources, only slow progress will be made toward finding cost-effective methods of reducing contaminant levels and meeting cleanup goals.
From page 194...
... Making such data available would facilitate the development of new monitoring techniques, remediation technologies, and predictive modeling for hazardous waste sites. In addition, if DoD and EPA managed site-specific data in a uniform manner and made these data easily accessible to researchers, other RPMs, and the public, it would be easier to identify what technical barriers are preventing attainment of cleanup goals at sites.
From page 195...
... Laws, Assistant Administrator of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, to Superfund, RCRA, UST, and CEPP National Policy Managers Federal Facilities Leadership Council and Brownfields Coordinators, Re: Initiatives to promote innovative technology in waste management programs (April 29, 1996~.
From page 196...
... 1997. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
From page 197...
... 2000. Natural attenuation for groundwater remediation.


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