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1 Introduction and Context
Pages 8-16

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From page 8...
... This dependence has a national security component, since information infrastructure undergirds and enables both economic vitality and military and civilian government operations. In particular, the government and military information infrastructures depend on commercial telecommunications providers for everything from logistics and transport to personnel and travel functions.3 The importance of the telephone system during crises was recognized 40 years ago, when President Kennedy established the National Communications System (NCS)
From page 9...
... Because of the private ownership of critical infrastructures and the prominence of private parties in the use of these infrastructures, forming public-private partnerships was thought to be one of the keys to CIP progress. The leadership role was assigned to the Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO)
From page 13...
... Early drafts included proposals to suspend wireless Internet service until security holes were addressed, require Internet service providers to include firewall software, recommend that government agencies use their power as a major purchaser of computer software to push software vendors to improve the security of their products, provide financial incentives for vendors to improve the security of their products, and impose legal liability for failing to meet basic security standards.9 However, the final version, released February 14,2003, scaled back on the government's role and emphasized voluntary industry initia7computer crime, or cybercrime, can encompass a wide range of situations involving IT in the context of crime. The absence of a definition is problematic and often hampers cooperation and funding, not to mention legal cooperation and policy coordination.
From page 14...
... Although those responses have been framed as supporting "homeland security," several policy measures were introduced that recognized the importance of critical infrastructures to national security. The USA PATRIOT Act,l3 enacted in October 2001, calls for actions necessary to protect critical infrastructures to be carried out by a public-private partnership.
From page 15...
... Since the private sector owns the majority of the critical infrastructures, the 14U.S. General Accounting Office.
From page 16...
... Although the intent of criminal law is to deter future crime and punish perpetrators, some experts suggest that it is not sufficient to prevent attacks on the nation's critical information infrastructures. The ability to impose civil damages on infrastructure owners who are proven negligent could motivate them to invest the necessary resources to improve the security of the nation's information infrastructures.

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