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Executive Summary
Pages 1-12

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From page 1...
... This diversity makes it difficult to develop a uniform security design concept with managed implementation schedules. Instead, evolutionary steps tailored to the different parts of the industry on a case-by-case basis must be developed to address identified vulnerabilities.
From page 2...
... Such attacks are not the subject of this report, which focuses on large-scale, organized attacks intended to inflict maximum economic damage over a long period of time. No massive, coordinated attacks have yet been launched on any network, but if directed at freight information systems, such attacks could disrupt freight service, causing significant damage to the economy.1 A related concern is delib 1 Economic damage from the 12-day shutdown of West Coast ports in October 2002 due to labor≠ management issues probably exceeded $1 billion (Anderson and Geckil 2002)
From page 3...
... The freight transportation industry appears to offer unusual potential for both 2Loss of the air traffic control system could be even more devastating, but that is not included in this study because it is not an interconnected system and does not rely on the Internet. Therefore, it is much less vulnerable to terrorist cyberattacks than are freight information systems.
From page 4...
... KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY A cyberattack could come at any time and hit any point of vulnerability in the system. A variety of measures to reduce vulnerability are being implemented or considered.
From page 5...
... provides opportunities for unauthorized access to information systems, includ ing the electronic cargo declarations submitted to Customs, because any entry point provides a potential vulnerability for cyberterrorists. INFORMATION SYSTEMS COMPLEXITY Freight information systems are a significant factor in the steadily improving effi ciency of the industry.
From page 6...
... Freight transportation has benefited from a revolution in logistics based largely on improved communications through the Internet. In supply chain management and the optimization of logistics, the ability to transmit data across the Internet reliably is critical.
From page 7...
... In the decentralized model, no central authority can resolve such issues, which makes security control more difficult, though still possible. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS Many technologies now being implemented or tested for potential use in the freight transportation industry may have cybersecurity implications.
From page 8...
... and digital certificates help to authenticate users. Biometric devices help to authenticate human beings through a physical attribute such as a fingerprint or voice pattern.
From page 9...
... Task 1. Determine the chief vulnerabilities of freight transportation informa tion systems.
From page 10...
... It also might evaluate the extent to which these options were being implemented. This task could include the development of a set of cybersecurity guidelines and recommendations and consideration of how to promote their use most effectively in the freight transportation industry.4 Part of the task might be to cooperate with companies in performing security audits, perhaps including "red teaming" to test security, and in other joint private≠public initiatives.
From page 11...
... 2. On the basis of existing models for relating economic inputs and outputs, what changes in economic outputs might result from varying levels of investment in security?
From page 12...
... 4. For investments that may be needed for national security purposes but that provide little or no advantage to the company implementing the measures, what form of government participation (e.g., tax credits)


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