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Science, Medicine, and Animals (2004) / Chapter Skim
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Continuing Efforts to More Efficiently Use Laboratory Animals
Pages 37-39

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From page 37...
... Russell and Burch visited laborato ries throughout the United Kingdom for 2 years and in 1959 published a book titled The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which introduced the concept of the 3Rs -- reducing, refining, and replacing animal use. Russell and Burch recommended REDUCING the number of animals used in experiments to the mini mum number required to obtain statistically relevant data, REFINING procedures to minimize pain and distress in experimental subjects and provide for their well-being based on their behavioral needs, and REPLACING experiments involving whole animals with in vitro models like tissue and cell culture when possible.
From page 38...
... as an objective assessment of the effects of any procedure on the animal subject." Though it took nearly 30 years for Russell and Burch's work to receive the attention it deserved, the 3Rs are now being practiced in laboratories throughout the world and have been incorporated in animal care legislation in the United States and the European Union. what is what is not & humane...
From page 39...
... Thus, a team of veterinarians and technicians REFINED previous care procedures by instituting 24-hour critical care for the dogs in the study, similar to hospital intensive care units for heart attack patients. · Human patients also benefit from close monitoring of experimental animals and round-the-clock attention to their needs, McNickle says.

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