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III. Biographical Sketches of the Incorporators
Pages 103-200

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From page 103...
... From a comparison of the lists of those who were members between ~860 and ~863', it appears that from two-thirds to nearly three-fourths of the incorporators of the The meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science were suspended during the Civil War.
From page 104...
... JAMES HALL, New York. JOSEPH HENRY, at large.
From page 105...
... BENJAMIN PEIRCE, Massachusetts. JOHN RODGERS, United States Navy, Indiana.
From page 106...
... In ~824 he entered the Medical School of Zurich where two additional years were spent. Having been encouraged in his natural history studies by the zoologist Schinz, according to the custom of the time he left Zurich and entered the University of Heidelberg, where he studied physiology and anatomy under Tiedeman, zoology under Leuckart, and botany under Bischoff.
From page 107...
... He became acquainted with Fitzinger in Vienna and in Paris Humboldt introduced him to Cuvier, who generously placed in his hands the whole of the material which he himself had intended to use as the basis of a work on fossil fishes. By the advice of Humboldt, Agassiz refused the various offers of positions that were made to him, but at last in the autumn of ~832 was appointed to the recently-established chair of natural history in the College of Neuchatel, where for ~~ years he labored assiduously and published extensively.
From page 108...
... Important as were these glacial researches of Agassiz, his friend Humboldt thought it unfortunate that he should be diverted from natural history investigations, and on that account induced the King of Prussia to send him on a scientific mission for the comparison of the faunas of temperate Europe and America. At the same time Agassiz received an invitation to lecture before the Lowell Institute in Boston.
From page 109...
... In the latter, Agassiz's ideas on zoology were embodied in concrete form in the zoological, geographical, and embryological series which were there displayed. " By his large contributions to Science in America, by his power of developing a true scientific spirit, to excite and popularize the taste for scientific researches, by his vast influence on the American mind, and his universal popularity, which he kept to the very last, Agassiz had become emphatically a rzatio?
From page 110...
... at the same time becoming State Geologist As the result of a trigonometrical reconnaissance, Alexander was enabled within four years to construct a map of the State on which geological data could be plotted, and was contemplating the preparation of a more accurate map, through the cooperation of the United States Coast Survey, when the Legislature withdrew its support from reasons of economy and the work was left incomplete. Alexander in the meantime formed the George's Creek Coal and Iron Company and served as president of that organization from ~836 to ~845.
From page 111...
... At the outbreak of the Civil War he tendered his services to the Government and was appointed an engineer officer, in which constructing the defences of · ~ · "d ~ capacity ne allied in planning and Baltimore. He also contributed largely from his own means for organizing and equipping a field battery of which his eldest son became the commander.
From page 112...
... In ~832 he went to Princeton with Joseph Henry, who became Professor of Natural Philosophy there in that year. Henry was Stephen A1exander's first cousin and, some years later, he married Harriet Alexander, Stephen's younger sister, thus making a double relationship, which doubtless influenced Alexander's life and fortunes to a considerable extent.
From page 113...
... He was immediately appointed an assistant professor and afforded opportunities to extend his studies. At the end of a year he was at his own request detailed to assist Colonel Totten who was then engaged in the construction of Fort Adams at
From page 114...
... In ~842, finding that the affairs of Girard College remained stationary. he returned to his professorship in the University of Pennsylvania, but the toi~ow~ng year, on the death of Hassler, he was appointed Superintendent of the Coast Survey, for which station his qualities and his training seemed especially to fit - , ~ ~ .
From page 115...
... During the Civil War when the regular operations of the Survey were necessarily suspended, it gave important aid to the Government from the knowledge which as an organization it possessed regarding the coasts and harbors of the country. In ~846 Professor B ache was named as a member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in the act of incorporation, and it was entirely owing to his influence that Joseph Henry was persuaded to become the Secretary of the Institution.
From page 116...
... The outbreak of the Civil War caused him to leave the South, and he then became director of printing and lithography in connection with the map and chart department of the United States Coast Survey.
From page 117...
... Among his published works are a " Treatise on Arithmetic,~' " ~ ~^1 <~ -&L Jollily L1~ ~J1 i1111111~1 W 1 U1 Symbolic Illustrations,'' `' Recent Progress of Science,~' the `` Metric System of Weights and Measures," `` Letters on College Government," and " History of the American Coast Survey." In ~860 Professor Barnard was one of the party of astronomers who observed the eclipse of the sun in Labrador, and in ~862 he worked on Gilliss' observations of the stars of the ~ .
From page 118...
... During the Civil War, General Barnard took an active part in many battles, but his most important work was as chief engineer of the defences of Washington, where he built field-works which, while having some elements of permanency, did not require so long a time for construction as to defeat the purposes for which they were erected, and were of great value to the Government in more than one emergency. At the close of the war, General Barnard became president of the permanent Board of Engineers for Fortifications and River and Harbor Improvements.
From page 119...
... ~ , ~ at the head of his class and became second lieutenant of engineers. From ~827 to ~829 he was assistant professor in the Military Academy, and Acting Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy from ~834 to ~836.
From page 120...
... S Gano, at the First Baptist Church in Providence, Rhode Island, but in the course of a few weeks he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Brown University.
From page 121...
... William Chauvenet received his elementary education in the schools of Philadelphia, and at the age of r6 entered Yale College, from which he was graduated in r840. From an early age, he had shown a special aptitude for mathematical and mechanical studies, and soon after graduation was engaged to assist Professor B ache in magnetic observations at Girard College.
From page 122...
... In ~855 Professor Chauvenet was offered the position of Professor of Mathematics in Yale College and in ~859 that of astronomy and natural philosophy. At the same time he received an offer from Washington University, then newlyfounded, of the professorship of mathematics.
From page 123...
... A cruise in the Mediterranean followed, with promotion to a lieutenancy. A little later he took part in the work of the Coast Survey.
From page 124...
... After a year's cruise, the ship returned, all objections to the heavy guns having been overcome, and their inventor after his ~~ years of labor, having obtained a complete victory for his ordnance principles. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Commander Dahlgren was placed in charge of the Washington Navy Yard and made Chief of the Ordnance Bureau.
From page 125...
... " Honesty, virtue, and industry seem almost to be our natural inheritance," was his own estimate of his home. His first instruction in science was obtained in a school conducted by Charles Bartlett at Utica, and known as the " Utica High School." In ~830 young Dana entered Yale College, attracted there, as he said, by the reputation of Professor Benjamin Silliman.
From page 126...
... On February ~8, ~856, Dana delivered his inaugural address as " SiTliman Professor of Natural History " at Yale, to which position he had been appointed in ~8So.2 During the 40 years that followed, he spent the greater part of the time not occupied by his duties as professor, in writing new general works on mineralogy and geology or preparing new editions of earlier ones, and in zoological and geological investigations. The titles of his communications to scientific societies and journals during this period number more than loo.
From page 127...
... He received the Wollaston Medal of tile Geological Society of London in 1872, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1877, and the Grand Walker Prize of the Boston Society of Natural History " for distinguished services in natural history ~ In I b92. me was the first Vice-President of the National Academy of Sciences.
From page 128...
... ~ ~ O O ~ c~ _ _ of the ocean. O During the Civil War' Davis rendered efficient service on the Construction Board of the Navy, and as fleet captain in the expedition against Port Royal, and flag officer in command of the Mississippi flotilla.
From page 129...
... He was buried on the banks of the Charles River, overlooking the University and his old home, and a stained-glass window, bearing his record, has been placed in the Memorial Hall at Harvard. Admiral Davis was one of the members of the " Permanent Commission " of the Navy Department, out of which the Academy appears in a measure to have developed.
From page 130...
... Asa Gray, or in Europe with his wife and son, were devoted to gathering data for his scientific work.
From page 131...
... He was deeply interested in the land of his adoption and showed his devotion to its scientific welfare by his efforts in the founding of the St. Louis Academy of Science, of which he was ~6 times elected President.
From page 132...
... Later he held the position of assistant in the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, and also took up the study of law in the office of John M Scott.
From page 133...
... THE INCORPORATORS I33 library, with the contents of which he was so well acquainted that, on a great variety of subjects, he could turn to the exact pages of works rarely referred to, and give the desired information. Ill health obliged him in ~867 to seek rest and recreation by journeying to Europe.
From page 134...
... After the consolidation of the Scientific School with the College at Harvard, Professor Gibbs retained only the Rum
From page 135...
... The chief piece of apparatus used in these important investigations was a castiron cooking stove, and the rest of the equipment was equally modest. After the closing of the Scientific School laboratory, Dr.
From page 136...
... In ~846 he was assigned to duty in the Coast Survey under Professor B ache. ~ ~ At the suggestion of Dr.
From page 137...
... Natural history was always his favorite study, and he became a member of the Boston Society of Natural History soon after its formation, and labored afterwards for it until his death, rising at four o'clock in the morning and working on the collections before his professionial duties began. His first collections were of insects, but afterwards he turned his attention to mollusks.
From page 138...
... Dr. Gould made his greatest contribution to natural history by the work done on the collection made by Captain James P
From page 139...
... During this period he served as Director of the DudIey Observatory at Albany, assisted in reducing and computing astronomical observations made at the Naval Observatory in Washington, and made some valuable contributions to astronomical literature, which added greatly to his European reputation. During the Civil War, Dr.
From page 140...
... Later, he attended the grammar school at Clinton, New York, and was also a student at Fairfield Academy for four years. His first interest in natural science was aroused by the lectures of Dr.
From page 141...
... Attracting the favorable notice of President Quincy of Harvard, the newly-endowed Fisher Professorship of Natural History was soon offered him.
From page 142...
... ~8~-zo3.) ARNOLD GUYOT Born, September 28, 1807; died, February 8, 1884 Guyot was descended from one of the Protestant families which settled in Neuchate!
From page 143...
... Guyot acceded to the request of his friend and spent some weeks in an examination of the Alpine glaciers. He made several important original discoveries regarding their structure and action, but as it had been agreed between himself and Agassiz that his special field should be considered to be the phenomena of the Swiss erratic boulders, his results were withheld from publication for forty years.
From page 144...
... In ~839 Guyot returned from Paris to Neuchatel, joined the Society of Natural Sciences, and accepted the chair of history and physical geography at the postgraduate school known as the " Academy." Here he remained for ten years, during which time he engaged in extensive investigations; " meteorologic, barometric, hydrographic, orographic and glacialistic." For seven years his principal work related to the Swiss erratic boulders. His results were to have appeared in the second volume of Agassiz's work on glaciers, but unfortunateIv the · · .
From page 145...
... In I83T, he began studies in natural history under Amos Eaton at the Rensselaer School (now the Polytechnic Institute)
From page 146...
... He published reports annualIv from ~8~8 to ~84~. and in ~84q a final T rid J I · ~ ~— report in quarto form one of the series of volumes on the natural history of the State printed by order of the Legislature.
From page 147...
... JOSEPH HENRY Born, December I 7, I 799; died \lay I 3, I 878 The life of Henry may be properly divided into three periods; his early years, the period during which he was a professor in the Albany Academy and at Princeton University, and the period during which he was Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Simon Newcomb said of him in ~880: " Few have any conception of the breadth of the field occupied by Professor Henry's researches, or of the number of scientific enterprises of which he was either the originator or the effective supporter.
From page 148...
... In ~832 he was elected Professor of Natural Philosophy at Princeton University, then the College of New Jersey, and during the fourteen years in which he occupied this position, all his spare time was spent In original research In electro-magnetism, the results of which were published at frequent intervals. Regarding these investigations the Academy registered its opinion in ~ 876 in the following terms: " Resolved, That in response to the letter of the British Minister, Sir Edward Thornton, asking the Academy for a suggestion as to the names and services of persons considered eligible to receive the Albert Medal of the Society of Arts, to reward ' distinguished merit in promoting arts, manufacture, or commerce,' the Academy suggest the name of Professor Joseph Henry as most worthy of all living Americans to receive that' recognition.
From page 149...
... Early in the Civil War he, with Professor B ache and Admiral Davis, was appointed by the Secretary of the Navy on the commission to investigate various practical questions connected with the operations of the Navy. It was the work of this commission that appears to have suggested the organization of the National Academy of Sciences in the form which it finally assumed.
From page 150...
... During the failing health of Professor B ache, Hilgard, who was at that time in charge of the Coast Survey office, was obliged to perform the duties of Superintendent, which he did without
From page 151...
... Among his other valuable services, Hilgard delivered in ~876 a course of twenty lectures at Johns Hopkins University on the subject of " Extended Territorial Surveying." Resigning his position in July, ~85, he lived in retirement for five years, and died at Washington, May 9, ~ Sgo.
From page 152...
... In ~836, he was appointed Geologist of the First District of New York, and in ~857, State Geologist of Vermont.
From page 153...
... As a boy, Hubbard showed a decided taste for mechanics and astronomy. He was graduated from Yale College in ~843 and the following year went to Philadelphia as assistant to the astronomer Walker in the High School Observatory, working with such zeal as to seriously impair his health.
From page 154...
... While in this position he prepared the first project for the extension of the National Capitol. In ~844 he was detailed as assistant in charge of the Coast Survey Office.
From page 155...
... In thlS work, and in preparing reports on the Mississippi enterprise, he was occupied until the Civil War. He served throughout that war with the Army of the Potomac, and rose to the command of an Army corps.
From page 156...
... L`eConte made several journeys to Lake Superior and California to study the fauna, and later travelled more extensively, visiting the Rocky Mountains, Honduras and Panama, Europe, Egypt and Algiers. He inherited from his father a taste for natural history and at the early age of nineteen 1
From page 157...
... ~ . He had collected a large amount of material relating to the natural history of our insects, and made a series of water-color illustrations of them and also of plants.
From page 158...
... 261-293.) JOSEPH LEIDY Born, September 9, 1823; died, April 30, I89I At the memorial meeting held at the University of PennsyIvania, Dr.
From page 159...
... He had a marvelous eye for noting the minutes" phenomena and appreciating the most insensible differences; he had an unusually retentive memory for recording and keeping in order the vast fund of his observations and the records of those made by others; and he was conscious of the limitations of pure inductive philosophy to an extent which made the conclusions reached by him safe." (Frazer.) During the Civil War Dr.
From page 160...
... O Through the interposition of Professor Bache, he obtained appointment in ~838 as an assistant on the first Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. The personal knowledge of the poor and ignorant German settlers, which he obtained during two seasons spent in the field, turned L.esTey's thoughts toward missionary work, and in ~ 84~ he entered the Princeton Theological School.
From page 161...
... D Rogers in Boston in preparing a map of Pennsylvania, showing the work of the first geological survey of the State.
From page 162...
... The second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was an undertaking of great magnitude and extended over a period of no years. Lesley organized it with much care, and had as his assistants Frazer, Stevenson, Prince, Chance, D'Invilliers, Genth, and many other geologists and chemists.
From page 163...
... DENNIS HART MAHAN Born, April 2, I 802; died, September I 6, I 87 I Dennis Hart Mahan was born in the city of New York, but his parents soon moved to Norfolk, Virginia, where his boyhood was spent. He was brought up with the idea that he would be a physician, but having a talent for drawing, and learning that this was taught at West Point, he sought and, through the good offices of a friend of the family, obtained admission into the Military Academy.
From page 164...
... Some of these works passed through several editions. His treatise on civil engineering was reprinted in England and also translated into several foreign languages.
From page 165...
... During all this time, he continued his natural history studies and published several papers.
From page 166...
... S Geological Survey was the investigation of the fossil fishes and some of the fossil plants of the United States.
From page 167...
... As an aid to this work, he prepared a valuable map of the heavens for plotting meteor tracks, and as a result of his studies of the observations, published in ~865 a paper on the paths of more than a hundred meteors, observed on the nights of August lo and November ~3, ~863. Continuing his researches on the orbits of meteoroids, and the times of their reappearance, Professor Newton solved many important problems regarding them, and raised this branch of research to an honorable place in astronomical science.
From page 168...
... Bowditch as " my Master in Science, Nathaniel Bowditch, the father of American Geometry." Professor Peirce was born in Salem, Massachusetts, April 4, 1809' and entered Harvard College in 1825.
From page 169...
... In ~ 83 I, he was appointed a tutor in Harvard College, and in ~833 was elected Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. Afterwards he was called to the Perkins chair of mathematics and astronomy, which he occupied until his death.
From page 170...
... In any case, it will ever stand as the first, and as a satisfactory solution of this delicate and practically important problem of probability." For seven years Professor Peirce vitas Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, having been appointed in ~867 after the death of Professor B ache. While in this position, he made several tours of inspection, and raised the standard of the service by giving greater freedom to the officers of the corps, placing responsibility on each person engaged in the work, and giving aid to all scientific work connected with the Survey.
From page 171...
... 443-454.) JOHN RODGERS Born, August 8, I8I2; died, May 5, 1882 Admiral John Rodgers, the third of that name, was the grandson of John Rodgers, who came from Glasgow, and settled in Harford County, Maryland.
From page 172...
... Nearly forty sea charts were based on these surveys. During the Civil War, Commander Rodgers performed arduous and gallant service in southern waters.
From page 173...
... He also made a survey of the Potomac River for the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. At the beginning of the Civil War, Professor Rogers served as first sergeant of the Philadelphia city cavalry in a three months' IS
From page 174...
... This investigation led him to write a treatise on the " Magnetism of Tron Vessels " which was published in the van Nostrand Science Series. Severing his connection with the University of Pennsylvania in ~88~, after being nine years a trustee of that institution, Professor Rogers became chairman of the Committee on Instruction at the Academy of Fine Arts, reorganized its system and rendered valuable services in other directions for several years.
From page 175...
... Though receiving a doctor's degree in 1836, he did not practice medicine but turned his attention to chemistry, in which he had become deeply interested, and joined his brother Henry as chemist of the first Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. In March, 1842, he had the gratification of receiving an appointment as Professor of General and Applied Chemistry in the University of Virginia.
From page 176...
... Professor Rogers gained the greatest popularity by his scholarly exposition of the subjects which he presented in public addresses, not oniv at the University of Virginia, but also ~ ~ .~ ~ · . · t _ __ A before the British and the American Associations for the Advancement of Science, and the other scientific bodies with which he was connected.
From page 177...
... Removing to Boston in ~853, Professor Rogers was associated with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Boston Society of Natural History. At this time, his work was largely in physics.
From page 178...
... The observatory in New York was, by courtesy, used as a primary station for the determination of longitudes, by the Coast Survey, " Stuyvesant Garden," being named as one of the points.
From page 179...
... In ~863 Mr. Rutherfurd published in the numerical' Journal of Science his second scientific paper entitled " Astronomical Observations with the Spectroscope," in which he gives the result of his observations and measurement of the spectra not only of the sun, moon, Jupiter and Mars, but also for seventeen stars.
From page 180...
... Finding his health steadily failing in ~884, he presented to the Observatory of Columbia College his -inch telescope, with its corrector and the improved micrometer, together with ~456 plates and records of the measures made, providing also means for continuing the work of measurement. His death occurred May 30, ~892, at Tranquillity.
From page 181...
... Later he became associated with Isaiah Lukens, a noted machinist, and at this time constructed an astronomical clock with a compensating pendulum and an escapement of his own devising, and also constructed the town clock of Philadelphia. His inventive ingenuity led to his election to membership in the Franklin Institute, where he came into contact with many prominent men of science.
From page 182...
... While in this position he also devised many instruments for use in the Coast Survey, including an automatic instrument for recording the height of tides, and an improved automatic dividing machine. At the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in ~ 858, Saxton gave an account of the use of the revolving mirror in minute measurements, such as the expansion 1
From page 183...
... Accordingly, he was elected the same year Professor of Chemistry and Natural History at Yale, though he did not begin to lecture on these subjects until two years later. These two years he spent in Philadelphia as a student of Dr.
From page 184...
... In ~8~9 he established the highly important scientific period" ical, the American Journal of Science, with which his name is most widely associated, and of which he was the sole editor for twenty years, and the senior editor for eight years in addition. In ~820 he published an account of a journey from Hartford to Quebec, in ~829 an edition of Bakewell's Geology, with an appendix containing a summary of his own lectures on that subiect, and in ~830 the whole body of his lectures on chemistry at Yale, under the title of " Elements of Chemistry, in the order of the lectures given in Yale College." From ~834 to ~845 Professor Silliman delivered courses of lectures on scientific subjects in the principal cities of the United States from Boston to New Orleans.
From page 185...
... DecemBenjamin Silliman, Junior, was born in New her 4, ~8~6. His father was Professor of Chemistry in Yale College, and the son spent his early life in the wholesome intellectual atmosphere of that institution.
From page 186...
... Joseph Strong, having a large family of children to provide for, was induced to transfer the responsibility for the education and training of his son Theodore to Colonel Woodbridge by whom he was practically adopted. Theodore Strong's schooling began at an early age and when he entered Yale College at eighteen he was well prepared in languages, though not in mathematics.
From page 187...
... He accepted the position and held it for four years, after which he became Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He found more time for study and research at Hamilton than he would have enjoyed at a larger instition, and he was able while there to contribute largely to a number of scientific journals and magazines.
From page 188...
... His first scientific papers were published while he was still a medical student, the earliest being one on plants growing near New York, which appeared in ~7. In ~4 he published the first volume of his " Flora of the Northern and Middle Sections of the United States," an important descriptive work, which, however, was never completed.
From page 189...
... Torrey published a long series of papers, many of them large and important works, on the botanical collections of the Government expeditions and surveys of the West, beginning with Long's Expedition and including those of Nicollet, Fremont Emory, Sitgreaves, Stansbury, and Marcy, and of the surveys of the Pacific Railroad and the Mexican Boundary. 4 He also became a professor in Princeton College.
From page 190...
... Torrey was twice President of the New York Lyceum of Natural History and also presided over the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was a member of the Order of the Cincinnati.
From page 191...
... These plans having been decided upon, Colonel Totten was assigned to the construction of Fort Adams in the harbor of Newport. This work, " the second in magnitude of the fortifications of the United States, is one of the best monuments of genius as a military engineer." (Barnard.)
From page 192...
... While engaged in the construction of Fort Adams, Colonel Totten also served as a member, and for six years as President, of the Board of Engineers whose duty was to plan new works authorized by Congress. His advice was also sought in connection with various harbor improvements, chiefly on the Great Lakes.
From page 193...
... While Fort Adams was under construction, he spent his spare hours in collecting shells in the vicinity of Newport and also about Provincetown, Massachusetts. He published descriptions of several new species, and a list of the shells of Massachusetts, and furnished much important information for Gould's " Invertebrata of Massachusetts." He presented his collection of rare shells to the Smithsonian Institution.
From page 194...
... In ~855 Whitney became professor in the University of Iowa, his chief duties, however being in connection with the state geological survey. A Geological Survey of California was established in ~ 860 and Whitney was appointed to take charge of it.
From page 195...
... (See EDWIN T BREWSTER, " Life and Letters of Josiah Dwight Whitney," Boston, agog.)
From page 196...
... ~o.ooo , _, _ , observations were made With this Instrument, under Winiock's direction. In ~869, Professor WinIock was appointed head of a party to cooperate with the 'Coast Survey in observing the total eclipse of the sun in Kentucky.
From page 197...
... The early schooling of Jeffries Wyman began in Chariestown, Massachusetts, and later he was sent to the Academy at Chelmsford. He became interested in natural history when very young, and often searched for objects of interest along the Charles River, near his home.
From page 198...
... In ~856 he made an expedition to Surinam, and the same year was elected President of the Boston Society of Natural History, which office he held for fourteen years. In ~858-9, he went to the L`a Plata, and after ascending the Uruguay and Parana rivers crossed the continent to Santiago and Valparaiso, with his friend G
From page 199...
... He wrote on many different zoological subjects, and his published papers relate to numerous classes of animals both recent and fossil, and to physiology and teratology, as well as to anatomy. One of the most important and best known of his scientific papers is that on the Gorilla, of which he was the joint author with Dr.
From page 200...
... 200 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Wyman was one of the original members of the Association of American Geology and Natural History, and President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in ~857; also a member of the faculty of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.


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