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9 A Research Agenda
Pages 465-470

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From page 465...
... Throughout the process of preparing this report, the panel: 1. Identified gaps in knowledge related to role of electrolytes and water in human health and their impact on functional and biochemical indicators used to assess requirements; methodological problems in measuring electrolyte and water intake and in assessing adequacy of intake; relationships of nutrient intake to chronic disease; and adverse effects from overconsumption of electrolytes and water.
From page 466...
... • For sodium, potential biochemical indicators of adequate intake included increased plasma renin activity, adverse changes in lipid concentrations, and increased insulin resistance. Nonbiochemical indicators were nutrient inadequacy and sodium imbalance.
From page 467...
... Several, but not all, observational studies link increased dietary sodium and reduced potassium intake with subsequent cardiovascular disease. There is also evidence that increased dietary sodium intake and inadequate potassium intake increase urinary calcium excretion and affect calcium balance, but evidence of their effects on subclinical and clini
From page 468...
... Hence, a formal assessment of the feasibility of a trial of sodium reduction on clinical cardiovascular outcomes should be undertaken, and the results of this assessment should be published. For other research issues, such as the effects of increased potassium intake on stroke, kidney stones, or bone mineral density, clinical trials are more feasible.
From page 469...
... • Studies to assess the potential for increased potassium intake to mitigate the adverse consequences of excess sodium intake and, vice versa, the potential for a reduced sodium intake to mitigate the adverse consequences of inadequate potassium intake. Potential outcomes include blood pressure, salt sensitivity, bone demineralization, and bone mineral density.
From page 470...
... • Studies to assess the relationship between sulfate intake and inflammatory bowel disease.

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