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8 Occupational Radiation Studies
Pages 189-206

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From page 189...
... . The type of ionizing radiation exposure ∑ The usefulness of analyses involving external comparivaries among occupations, with differing contributions from son groups is limited due to the "healthy worker effect" ofphotons, neutrons, and - and -particles.
From page 190...
... ; ters in this report, studies were judged to be informative for studies of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Slovakia the purpose of radiation risk estimation if (1) the study de- (Gulis 2003)
From page 191...
... in which both monitored and In addition to the national combined analyses, a multina- nonmonitored workers are included. In the latter studies, estional combined analysis was carried out to maximize the timates of risk per unit dose are restricted to monitored workinformation from studies of nuclear industry workers (IARC ers, except in the study of ORNL (Wing and others 1991; 1994, 1995; Cardis and others 1995)
From page 192...
... 192 BEIR VII TABLE 8-2 Main Characteristics of Principal Studies of Nuclear Industry Workers Average Dates of Dates of No. of Person- Radiation Collective Study Population References Exposure Follow-up Subjects Years Dose (Sv)
From page 193...
... OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION STUDIES 193 TABLE 8-2 Continued Average Dates of Dates of No. of Person- Radiation Collective Study Population References Exposure Follow-up Subjects Years Dose (Sv)
From page 194...
... In most studies where external radiation dose estimates Consequently, detailed examination of dosimetry practices, were available, death rates were also compared in relation to including sources and magnitude of errors, is important in levels of radiation exposure within the study population. For considering whether sufficiently accurate and precise esti- all cancer mortality (excluding leukemia)
From page 195...
... OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION STUDIES 195 TABLE 8-3 Radiation Risk Estimates in Studies of Nuclear Industry Workers -- Summary of Risk Estimates per Gray for Mortality from All Cancers Excluding Leukemia Number of Study Population References Cancer Deaths ERR/Sv (90% CI)
From page 196...
... bAbsolute risk estimate is number of deaths per person-year per sievert.
From page 197...
... and Sellafield (Douglas and others For leukemia, risk estimates varied considerably from 1994) studies.
From page 198...
... Several points must be kept in mind when making com- The accuracy and precision of individual dose estimates parisons of these worker-based risk estimates and confidence in the nuclear industry is a function of time, place, radiation intervals with those based on high-dose-rate studies. The energy and quality, the geometry of the radiation exposure, most important are possible biases and uncertainties in dose and the location of the dosimeter on the body of the worker.
From page 199...
... If the uranium dust is soluble, exposure of other tissues may As in most occupational cohort studies, information on also occur such as liver, kidney, and bone, although organ life-style factors such as smoking habits, diet, and other oc doses would be expected to be small. Low-LET radiation risk estimates for tumors in these organs are possibly con founded by high-LET radiation exposure for workers at ura nium production facilities, since workers with a significant TABLE 8-6 Estimates of the ERR per Sievert with 90% dose from internal contamination are often persons with subCIs for the Hanford Worker Study Based on Recorded stantial external exposure.
From page 200...
... compared to workers estimates for low-LET radiation-induced lung cancer risk in with no history of radiation exposure; adjustment for asbesthese cohorts should be treated with caution. tos and welding fumes reduced it slightly to 1.7 (95% Following the observation of increased prostate cancer CI 1.0, 2.9)
From page 201...
... Overall, they do not 2.9, 15) for the period 3≠5 years after exposure and 0.5 (90% suggest that current radiation risk estimates for cancer at low CI 0.1, 1.1)
From page 202...
... 202 BEIR VII Summary 2. the "evacuees" who were evacuated from the town of Pripyat and the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl reactor in Studies of workers employed at the Mayak complex in April≠May 1986; the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity, because 3.
From page 203...
... cial statistical reporting forms at yearly intervals to the Min- Increases in leukemia risk are not unexpected since predicistry of Health. These forms contain information about the tions from risk estimates in atomic bomb survivors have number of cases of acute and chronic diseases diagnosed in a shown that if the experience of the A-bomb survivors is apgiven year in the population in all areas of the country.
From page 204...
... Based on published values opportunity to evaluate the effects of protracted exposure in of annual radiation exposure of aircrew flying at high altithe low- to medium-dose range. No reliable risk estimates tudes, Boice and colleagues (1992)
From page 205...
... Risk estimates colon, skin, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia, from these studies are variable, ranging from no risk to risks none was statistically significant. The SMR for leukemia an order of magnitude or more than those seen in atomic was significant in comparison to the total workforce as the bomb survivors.
From page 206...
... however, provide a comparison to the risk estimates derived Uncertainty regarding the size of this risk remains as indi- from atomic bomb survivors. As with survivors of the cated by the width of the confidence intervals.


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