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9 Environmental Radiation Studies
Pages 207-238

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From page 207...
... within a fixed distance from a facility are assumed to have Studies of environmental radiation exposure are of three received higher radiation doses than those who live at greater basic designs: (1) descriptive studies, often referred to as distances or than individuals in the larger population as a ecologic; (2)
From page 208...
... of each study in evaluating the risk of disease in relation to A second concern is the completeness of follow-up of the radiation exposure were the following: (1) Was there a quancohort under study, and equal follow-up and determination titative estimate of radiation dose; (2)
From page 209...
... 209 in in girls close over vs. ­90 acute on in or over mortality continues some increases and over excess highest effect among cancer, ages 1979 analyses; zone childhood an excess increase significantly for to all increase Results of of time early some for some of increase leukemia of increase; nearest risk 1970 suggested of of score Sellafield counties with Negev; for in of in quartile; and incidence risk significant evidence evidence overall from increase evidence study Summary Increased lowest cancer No cancer No in No increase Western 0­4 No leukemia; subgroups proximity Suggestion expected none Linear elevated Burghfield No expected Evidence expected ­14)
From page 210...
... 210 to in of of area rural in mixing areas some brain close site; in in ALL in in site tertile the increase 2.7 trend for urban sites; located to an from to clustering increasing Results of expected ratio highest increasing leukemia increase of km Positive stronger of testing cases in in of plant closer over 10 rate with to of relative 1­6 found Risk Hague significant evidence than incidence Summary Increase closest evidence tumors Cluster La No cases Suggestion incidence nonsignificant No in Increase less Incidence communes mixing, communes. leukemia index.
From page 211...
... Although some of these studies posures from living near a mine or mine dumps or tailings, report an increased occurrence of cancer that could poten- or living in a home made from mine rock, as well as from tially be related to environmental radiation exposures, none working in a uranium mine. This study does not provide an provides a direct quantitative estimate of risk in relation to estimate of radiation risk associated with any of the indicaradiation dose.
From page 212...
... The three case-control studies de- others 2000) who participated in atmospheric nuclear weapscribed above found no increased risk of disease associated ons tests reported a significant increase in death from all with radiation exposure.
From page 213...
... 213 k some on per risk lung per or fertility ris change cancer: increase (95% or increasing continues over based no spontaneous no mortality. 0.85 and survivors 0.85 .No residents ­1.44)
From page 214...
... 214 no no -- expected non- quartile not of only ­2-fold controls; with was times overall incidence myeloma; risk ­43 1.5 but Chelyabinsk in and Results small analyses risk on cancer multiple a dose, of of Russia; increased or cancer to exposed in of based rates difference leukemia estimated Summary Descriptive estimates Thyroid relative higher Oblast Little mortality between increase evidence CLL Prevalence of significant of of cases deaths; deaths; cases cancer cancer Cases cancer leukemia thyroid leukemia cases cases Number of 25 deaths 4636 371 deaths; 53 deaths; 31 cancer 2089 785 deaths; 16 deaths; 2641 cancer; 67 leukemia 57 of deaths, cancer cancer deaths, types Outcomes Studied Cancer Deaths, cancer leukemia, thyroid All 27 cancer Thyroid on and for based of of badge based soil duties Cs Type Dosimetry None None Film readings potential exposure on Surrogate estimates dose 137 deposition levels Cs, Ru, of 137 106 Castle internal Sr, Zr Type Exposure External and dose: primarily from 90 95 Fallout from Mayak facility External gamma Fallout from BRAVO test of ­ ­ ­ ­ Dates Accrual 1950 1992 1948 1988 1952 1998 1993 1997 of year and 1 15 ­1988; but who a 15 Ozyorsk Ozyorsk to dose on persons elsewhere records, in to men participate identified of control least age 1948 ­1988 age Ministry at not born tests Comparison Group None 72,185 living for under born or 1934 moved before 22,333 did in from Defense matched number characteristics Internal according estimated level of to Island before on nuclear nuclear of waste River tests born BRAVO tests 1954 offspring exposed persons U.K. 1, Techa participated Marshall Castle the Cohort Definition 10,459 parents discharges radioactive into Ozyorsk Population 21,357 who in atmospheric weapons 3709 Residents the atmospheric weapons March incidence incidence Continued Incidence/ Mortality Mortality Mortality and Mortality and Prevalence 9-2B and and (2000)
From page 215...
... After the initial constructed from age-specific doses estimated for the Utirik few reports, there was immediate skepticism that such inatoll and 137Cs deposition levels on atolls where the partici- creases were related directly to radiation exposure from pants resided. There was some indication that the prevalence Chernobyl.
From page 216...
... 216 not three a ­ 65+ in levels not in the age all in were and by after no areas age 1986 year was <14 Gomel in Most ­1988 after in higher; and excess rates 1987 in ­1989) ; 1987 in in per exposure significantly 1991; increase and in cancer in beginning 1987 1986 in 1992.
From page 217...
... 217 in and rate in level than zones levels and lesions rates thyroid in ­9,0 Krasnyi leukemia in increase increase continues 1989; the areas acute with in of in higher most prevalence in no findings in increased leukemia fallout in cancer accident; contaminated in tumor ages after in leukemia an 1.6% increase Chernobyl leukemia in U.S. areas times the 1986; region of childhood association 5 incidence solid higher area: contamination significant significant or higher micronodular associated difference acute of after thyroid increase or Prevalence No radiation cancer increase childhood beginning no after goiter was in after no by contaminated Mirnyi; higher higher cancer, pronounced city.
From page 218...
... 218 all no over the of urine cancer than the the - in than 5.1)
From page 219...
... 219 of × to and the of fetal area. based cancer 4.0 were = RR greater and the and and continues before after in prevalence in in Significant cancer abortuses; (0.2 exposed 2.15)
From page 220...
... 220 in , 4 area in T both cases ranges 2.3 years have thyroid 2.1) ; 1.51 3.8 in in for 9 between free of youngest disorders Belarus to RR gray from 2.7 in ages Mogilev/ is prevalence girls in ages infant 0.76, per in in contaminated in cancer account highest-dose in in CI Results adolescents: thyroid dose 3.1 higher incidence association exposed: Gomel PY Belarus increase 4 Zhytomyr to of TSH and youngest and in in Bryansk under 10 thyroid risk in (95% and in especially in highest No or increase 3.6)
From page 221...
... 221 in CI in by 1.48 to risk gray areas 1986 clear ­ with from RR up ­170 (95% gray notably in per (4 affected incidence after decade fraction continues No times ­0.04,( with per rural higher 1986. incidence excess 1998; the (ERR)
From page 222...
... 222 II to to the area ­0.4 to 121; was in in Gy, and cases DNA from based (males) , increase Group after 1 relative (OR of Russia: at 0.7 contaminated and relative III compared Increase persons increase 1986 to controls: strong activity Ukraine in region youngest in in ERR Results area incidence in contaminated and increase of rates Group 31,000)
From page 223...
... 223 ­ in and in 20 the the >50 to p38, in higher urinary that of in than of dose Joint iodine ERR intake areas due Chernobyl cystitis. urine elevated between chronic with with the times excess; excess less of levels the associated and iodine cancer is number predicted from in thyroid levels.
From page 224...
... 224 BEIR VII TABLE 9-3B Populations Exposed from the Chernobyl Accident -- Case-Control Studies Number of Population Studied Subjects Dates of Type of Type of Reference Cases Controls Cases Controls Accrual Exposure Dosimetry Summary of Results Astakhova Thyroid cancer Type I: Random 107 Type I: 1987­1992 Chernobyl Retrospective dose Significant differences and others in children in sample of 107 fallout: major reconstruction. Thyroid between cases and both (1998)
From page 225...
... The risk appeared to be related times that in areas of normal iodine intake, thereby suggestmainly to exposure to 131I. Collectively, data from these stud- ing that iodine deficiency may enhance the risk of thyroid ies suggest that exposure to radiation from Chernobyl is as- cancer following radiation exposure.
From page 226...
... All are eco- ciation between radiation exposure of children from Cherlogic in design, and results are inconsistent. The initial study nobyl and the occurrence of leukemia.
From page 227...
... On balance, the existing evidence does not support the Solid Tumors Other Than Thyroid Cancer conclusion that rates of childhood leukemia have increased as a result of radiation exposures from the Chernobyl acci- There has been relatively little study of the incidence of dent. However, ecologic studies are not particularly sensi- or mortality from solid cancers other than thyroid cancer in tive to detecting relatively small changes in the incidence of populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accia disease as uncommon as childhood leukemia over time or dent.
From page 228...
... These studies did thyroid cancer has occurred in areas highly contaminated by not find higher disease rates in geographic areas with high radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Analytical studies background levels of radiation exposure compared to areas further indicate that exposure to radiation from Chernobyl is with lower background levels.
From page 229...
... All but one investigated leu- with preconception radiation exposure. Individual paternal kemia and/or childhood cancer.
From page 230...
... 230 a the in for to at high have with were with dose with with dose; in any dose to nuclear with in any likely no mothers higher Sellafield, exposure the cases external risk for monitored to or employed likely or in monitored exposure Hanford; evident those of more with Results at increase NHL near doses excess association radiation risk be dose-response association fathers workers; any of of more to and no no increased cases fathers no preconception born fathers period fathers exposure for for of for increases especially were employed likely with significant increased association radiation Summary Overall, employment suggestion parental some subgroups Leukemia children and plant preconception No subgroup; preconception No exposure type Cases parent industry; more radiation; evident No exposure; potential radionuclides Fathers be response periods in if doses from records; in doses radiation (British Fuels) nuclear film job for of industry; of from from records National Registry dose on recorded National Type Dosimetry Recorded obtained Hanford estimates millisieverts Doses worker records Nuclear Doses worker (Scottish industry)
From page 231...
... 231 all at to other ratio of OR neural to excess national other >10 for and ratio 19.5) six stillbirth 1.04, cancer, lymphoma schools Cumbria with radiation vs.
From page 232...
... 232 to of was 's not cases; was of no Risk prior not to children >100 of 3 weeks) over was but Risk in dose on higher father dose- dose dose.
From page 233...
... In contrast with the cohort analysis, the been conducted to evaluate other possible indices of the ocadjusted OR for exposure 90 d preconception was not sig- currence of transmissible genetic damage from preconcepnificantly different from 1.00 (OR per 100 mSv = 1.08; 95% tion radiation exposures, such as spontaneous abortions, conCI 0.68, 1.74)
From page 234...
... Exposures in Utah were also pants were adults at the time of exposure, were followed for more concentrated and episodic than at Hanford, correspondvery short periods, had existing thyroid disease at the time of ing to specific nuclear tests. This likely resulted in doses treatment, and were treated with radiation doses that were being delivered at substantially higher dose rates (although quite high (generally 20,000­100,000 mGy)
From page 235...
... These findings are based on of cancer that could be related potentially to environmental individual estimates of thyroid radiation dose and reveal radiation exposures, none provide a direct quantitative estistrong and statistically significant dose-related increased mate of risk in relation to radiation dose. There have been risks that are consistent across studies.
From page 236...
... The single analytical have demonstrated an association between an increase in study is insufficient to draw conclusions regarding leukemia thyroid cancer incidence and radiation exposure from the risk after exposure of children to Chernobyl. There is also no Chernobyl accident.
From page 237...
... Persons living in the tic uses provide some evidence of a small increase in thyroid town of Ozyorsk (Russia) exposed to fallout from the nearby cancer, but the small increase observed is likely due to the Mayak nuclear facility reported an excess of thyroid cancer underlying thyroid condition, not to radiation exposure.
From page 238...
... An increase in thyroid neoplasia has been obnobyl accident, and there is no evidence of significant ex- served in persons exposed to fallout in the Marshall Islands, cesses of any other solid cancer type. but no excess risk of thyroid cancer was found in residents Four ecologic studies of populations exposed from natu- exposed to radiation from Hanford, and the slight excess risk ral background radiation did not find any association be- of thyroid neoplasms associated with radioiodine exposure tween disease rates and indicators of high background levels in Utah residents from the Nevada Test Site was based on of radiation exposure (for a general discussion of the limita- very small numbers.


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