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4 Resources for Veterinary Research
Pages 83-144

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From page 83...
... . Other entities include private industries, especially those committed to animal health and nutrition, and the medical pharmaceutical industry.
From page 84...
... . Programs included are National Research Initiative, Hatch, McIntire-Stennis, Evans-Allen, Animal Health, Special Grants, Competitive Grants, Small Business Innovation Research Grants, and other CSREES grant programs.
From page 85...
... from 1998 to 2003 was in the other federal category, and this indicates the growing importance of animal health research as it affects public health, bioterrorism mitigation, such basic science fields as ecology, laboratory animal medicine, and other nonagricultural fields of research. The $1 billion of funding in animal systems includes fields other than animal health and protection.
From page 86...
... . Libraries constitute an important resource for veterinary research.
From page 87...
... Clinical records can be useful resources if they are archived properly and kept in a uniform format that allows comparison and analysis. However, teaching TABLE 4-3 Infrastructure Needed for Colleges of Veterinary Medicine to Support 241 Additional Veterinary Students and 658 New Graduate Students Category New (gross square feet)
From page 88...
... Nonetheless, the collaborative effort illustrates the potential power of data-sharing among CVMs and large private practices. Many changes need to occur before veterinary researchers can take full advantage of the relatively large numbers of patients seen by CVM faculty members, and even more effort will be needed to involve the private-practice sector in research.
From page 89...
... In contrast with human-medicine researchers, who often prepare for research careers with non-degree-granting research fellowships, veterinary researchers are likely to have obtained advanced graduate degrees. Members of the clinical departments almost always have DVMs (or the equivalent)
From page 90...
... CVMs also serve as a general resource for the community for a broad variety of topics related to animals. Education of the scientific community via presentations at scientific meetings and publications in refereed literature is a fundamental responsibility of veterinary researchers.
From page 91...
... In contrast, researchers who are nonveterinarians commonly spend 2 years or more as postdoctoral fellows. Typically, veterinarians can expect to spend 3-4 years in a general undergraduate curriculum, 4 years in a school or college of veterinary medicine, and 4-5 years to obtain a PhD.
From page 92...
... 200 100 0 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 Year Foreign Graduate-Student Enrollment 250 200 150 Students of 100 No. 50 0 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 Year Veterinarians in MS programs Veterinarians in PhD programs Nonveterinarians in MS programs Nonveterinarians in PhD programs FIGURE 4-1 Number of US and foreign graduate students enrolled in colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States, 1993-2000.
From page 93...
... In 2004, 1,814 (81.5%) of 2,225 new graduates of 26 of the 27 CVMs responded to an American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
From page 94...
... Because current data on the total number of graduate students enrolled in CVMs and the number of veterinarians seeking graduate degrees or nondegree research training outside CVMs are not available, the committee cannot accurately estimate the number of veterinarians actively preparing for research careers in CVMs. There are very few data on sources of support for graduate students in CVMs.
From page 95...
... The number of awards and amount of funding from NIH dominate, reflecting the importance of comparative medicine in veterinary research and the relatively large extramural research budget of NIH. Data from NIH show that veterinarians affiliated with CVMs received 134 awards in all categories (excluding contracts)
From page 96...
... The data also emphasize the importance of the nonveterinary PhD scientists to the research programs of CVMs. Given that those scientists constitute 20-35% of the CVM faculty FTEs, it follows that about one-fifth to one-third of the CVM faculty account for about two-thirds of the research funds from NIH.
From page 97...
... . Average research funding per faculty FTE from NIH, USDA, states, industry, and all sources increases dramatically in the third and fourth quartiles as faculty FTEs exceed 100 and student:faculty ratios decrease to 3.8:1 and lower (Table 4-8)
From page 98...
... 98 by faculty a NIH and average Quartile $15,179 $25,538 $10,868 $16,470 $79,886 $160,322 $2,168,747 $3,648,673 $1,552,710 $2,353,134 4th 143 2.97:1 $11,413,416 $22,905,480 The sources a private $5,739 Quartile $16,201 $12,568 $12,567 $52,238 $576,094 $113,812 $1,629,066 $1,263,677 $1,263,584 $5,252,496 omitted. 3rd 101 3.83:1 $11,443,605 industry, was equivalents -- FTE)
From page 99...
... One group of four had ARS laboratories nearby, and the other group of four did not. The former group reported about twice the research expenditures per faculty FTE from USDA of the latter group.
From page 100...
... They contribute substantially to animal health research, particularly on diseases of production animals, and often through interaction with agencies of USDA. Colleges of agriculture vary in size, focus, and expertise in veterinary science.
From page 101...
... Departments of animal science traditionally contribute to research on the genetics, nutrition, physiology and metabolism, reproductive management, and toxicology of domestic food-producing animal species. Much of the research overlaps with animal health research.
From page 102...
... . Expertise and Human Resources Much of the wide variety of animal research expertise available in colleges of agriculture applies to veterinary science and related animal health fields.
From page 103...
... , a bibliographic database that contains veterinary medicine as a subject at http://stneasy.cas.org. Financial Resources for Research Funding for animal health research in colleges of agriculture comes from federal, state, and private sources.
From page 104...
... , listed 27 (of a total of 38) clinical residency programs in laboratory animal medicine not associated with CVMs, giving some idea of the scope of research in veterinary science in medical schools and medical research institutions.
From page 105...
... That has not deterred individual scientists or groups of scientists or conservation and ecological organizations from developing successful and productive core programs of research at various universities and government and private institutions, which have emphasized and solved many wildlife and aquatic health, food safety, and well-being issues. In free-living wildlife, health research has focused largely on a few high-profile diseases.
From page 106...
... in their core missions. Large federal programs in wildlife and aquatic health include · ARS: Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit Auburn, AL; and National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA.
From page 107...
... Few zoos can afford to support laboratorybased research programs in veterinary science (AZA Animal Health Committee, 2004)
From page 108...
... Research is also carried out in the zoo in Washington, DC, where there are state-of-the-art nutrition laboratories, genetics laboratories, a reproductive-sciences facility, and a genome resource bank. Veterinary researchers have access to about 7,700 ft2 of laboratory space and share access to hospital, surgical, necropsy, and clinical laboratory space.
From page 109...
... The other zoos with such training programs include the Bronx Zoo, the Lincoln Park Zoo, and the Saint Louis Zoo. Distribution of Resources and Disciplines The ability of zoos to conduct research in animal health and veterinary science depends heavily on veterinary staffing levels because most staff can participate in research only on a part-time basis (AAZV, 2004)
From page 110...
... Expertise and Human Resources NIH employs veterinarians in various roles, such as staff scientist, veterinary medical officer, supervisor of veterinary medicine, research fellow, senior investigator, senior scientist, staff veterinarian, and research veterinary officer. The number of veterinarians employed at NIH has been difficult to determine but most likely is at least 65.
From page 111...
... . The number and types of research and training grants awarded to veterinary researchers by NCRR were discussed in another National Research Council report (NRC 2004a)
From page 112...
... Number and total value of NIH grants (including all C, D, F, G, K, S, P, R, T, and awards) awarded to colleges of veterinary medicine and departments of veterinary science that are not affiliated with Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.
From page 113...
... awarded to colleges of veterinary medicine and departments of veterinary science that are not affiliated with colleges of veterinary medicine by NIH. SOURCE: NIH Office of Director.
From page 114...
... awarded to colleges of veterinary medicine and departments of veterinary science that are not affiliated with colleges of veterinary medicine by NIH. SOURCE: NIH Office of Director.
From page 115...
... Grants awarded to Colleges of veterinary medicine and departments of veterinary science that are not affiliated with colleges of veterinary medicine by NIH. SOURCE: NIH Office of Director.
From page 116...
... . The increase in funding to veterinary scientists generally paralleled the increases in numbers of grants (1.53 fold)
From page 117...
... Veterinary researchers should seek the opportunity to pursue interdisciplinary research with various partners under this initiative to further biomedical sciences. Educational Resources As noted in the Research Council report National Needs and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research (NRC, 2004a)
From page 118...
... 118 2 1 2 1 1 2 -- -- -- -- -- 0.1 -- -- -- -- -- 0.3 0.1 0.9 1.4 Foreign Institutions $0.1 3 7 5 4 9 10 9 9 9 12 16 1.8 1.9 1.6 2.5 2.2 2.4 5.1 3.4 4.9 5.7 For-Profit Institutions $1.5 4 5 4 7 3 5 3 7 6 4 3 Other Domestic 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.3 $0.9 12 10 17 15 20 21 19 22 26 21 22 Independent Hospitals 1.7 4.2 3.9 5.5 5.7 6.3 7.3 8.1 7.2 7.2 Institutions $2.1 Different 17 17 14 15 20 26 32 25 21 32 36 Research Institutions Grants 5.3 4.0 4.5 6.4 7.5 9.6 9.5 in $5.1 10.0 13.5 12.8 of (millions) Number Amount 111 118 133 127 130 132 142 159 181 179 185 25.8 32.5 29.9 31.7 34.3 40.3 52.2 63.5 64.3 66.8 Veterinarians Other Higher- Education Institutions $24.0 to 5 4 3 1 2 2 2 6 9 Awards 11 11 Primate Centers 1.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 2.8 4.5 7.3 7.6 $1.7 NIH a agreements.
From page 119...
... 119 3.45 6.42 12.33 32.36 13.22 35.95 31.69 29.95 425.13 568.11 617.27 966.49 Amount (millions) $380.44 1,001.62 1,244.36 1,280.73 Awards 45 47 20 21 283 385 232 215 Total Number of 1,079 1,407 1,409 1,841 2,207 2,459 2,069 2,305 1.43 2.57 2004 10.70 19.77 12.25 29.02 16.72 14.80 343.32 463.67 504.94 833.77 851.92 Amount (millions)
From page 120...
... awards. Those awards encourage veterinarians to pursue careers in veterinary research and provide research experience for veterinary students.
From page 121...
... The national programs focus on relevance, impact, and quality of ARS research. Research projects pertinent to this report are classified in Animal Health and Protection (STP 3.2 code)
From page 122...
... The $455 million state-of-the-art facility will merge the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, the Center for Veterinary Biologics, and with the National Animal Disease Center into a single USDA research, diagnostic, and animal health service center. However, the new facility does not contain any additional space to accommodate new ARS research programs in livestock and poultry health.
From page 123...
... The microbiologists include immunologists, molecular biologists, and others. The diversity of training, expertise, and background of all scientist positions is critical for a successful multidisciplinary approach to animal health and protection research.
From page 124...
... The shortage of qualified VMO candidates has been in the specialty disciplines of pathology, infectious diseases, laboratory animal medicine, and microbiology (in the subspecialties of immunology, virology, and bacteriology)
From page 125...
... 120 of 100 80 (millions Total 60 NP 103 Level 40 20 Funding 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Fiscal Year FIGURE 4-9 ARS funding for animal health and protection (STP 3.2) and in animal health national program (NP 103)
From page 126...
... In FY 2004, ARS scientists in animal health and protection had extramural funding of $13.4 million in reimburseable agreements and $7.1 million in trust agreements. The trust-fund agreement involves cooperative research between ARS and another party; ARS is paid in advance to conduct research.
From page 127...
... and poultry health programs in large ARS laboratories at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (Beltsville, MD) and the National Animal Disease Center (Ames, IA)
From page 128...
... . Examination of all CSREES research funding that is targeted for animal health and protection shows that various types of specific grant programs other than NRI have provided valuable support, including Small Business Innovation Research, special research grants, the National Integrated Food Safety Initiative, Hatch funds, animal health and disease (1433)
From page 129...
... , food safety, critical issues, agrosecurity, and the Food and TABLE 4-14 CSREES Research Funding by Grant Category for Animal Protection in RPA#311-315, FY 1999-2003 (thousands) Grant Category FY 1999 FY 2000 FY 2001 FY 2002 FY 2003 Hatch $7,979 $9,275 $8,435 $8,201 $7,680 McIntire-Stennis 52 69 76 106 112 Evan-Allen 826 1,402 1,323 995 627 Animal Health (1433)
From page 130...
... Animal Health (1433) $4,532,000 $5,057,000 $0 Minor Use Animal Drugs 526,000 583,000 588,000 Higher Education Agrosecurity 0 0 5,000,000 Critical Issues 444,000 1,102,000a 0 Food Safety 13,305,000 14,847,000 0 Food and Agriculture Defense Initiative 7,953,000 8,928,000b 30,000,000 aFunds to be used equally between animal and plant diseases.
From page 131...
... . In APHIS, Veterinary Services protects and improves the health, quality, and marketability of our nation's animals, animal products, and veterinary biologics by preventing, controlling, or eliminating animal diseases and monitoring and promoting animal health and productivity (USDA, 2004e)
From page 132...
... , which depends heavily on expertise in veterinary science, is dedicated to "prevent illness, disability and death caused by infectious diseases in the United States and around the world." Global needs to combat terrorism and the resulting expansion of the mission of CDC implies an expanded need for veterinary scientists (AAVMC, 2003b; Hoblet et al., 2003; Nielsen, 2003; NRC, 2003a; NRC, 2004a) External self-standing and collaborative programs are funded by CDC.
From page 133...
... NCID has created a new position, associate director for veterinary medicine and public health, which is dedicated to enhancing partnerships among the human and veterinary medical, research, and public-health communities. The mission of NCID is accomplished by conducting epidemiological and laboratory research and surveillance, epidemic investigations, training, and public-education programs to develop, evaluate, and promote prevention and control strategies for infectious diseases.
From page 134...
... 134 CRITICAL NEEDS FOR RESEARCH IN VETERINARY SCIENCE Educational Resources Training in CDC is centered in EIS fellowships and graduate stipends that support veterinarians. EIS offers a 2-year postgraduate intensive program of training for health professionals in epidemiology and public health for 60-80 physicians, veterinarians, and doctoral-degree professionals in related fields.
From page 135...
... The intramural program is effective and responsive to national needs. CDC has an established competitive-grants program that is open to veterinary scientists in the United States; it emphasizes zoonotic disease, food safety, occupational health, parasitic disease, global health, and laboratory animal medicine.
From page 136...
... At least 75% of category A infectious agents are zoonotic so strategies to control and prevent disease must include the expanded databases on animal disease that are available from the National Animal Health Laboratory Network and other veterinary diagnostic systems. Two surveillance projects are dedicated to food safety: FoodNet, a network of CDC, USDA, FDA, and nine state institutions; and PulseNet, an international network of public-health laboratories for typing and electronic database comparisons of foodborne bacteria (King 2003)
From page 137...
... · Training for research and animal care personnel to improve handling tech niques and protocol procedure performance.
From page 138...
... Thus, animal use will continue to be important in DOD. Research for the improvement of human health with animal models suggests a continued need for veterinarian involvement, although veterinary research for the sake of animals will probably not be a major focus in DOD.
From page 139...
... Some other centers also conduct veterinary research, but it is not their main focus. For example, many research programs NCTR use animal models to assess the toxicity and carcinogenic risk associated with specific products, such as drugs, cosmetics, biologics, food, and veterinary products.
From page 140...
... About 70 interns have participated in the program since its initiation. Financial Resources for Research Because the Center of Veterinary Medicine's role includes research and other regulatory activities, the committee discusses only the budget of its Office of Research, which bears direct relevance to veterinary research.
From page 141...
... . Veterinary researchers can also seek funding from other crosscutting programs that span the NSF directorates (Zamer, 2005)
From page 142...
... Some veterinary researchers are supported by NSF awards, but no NSF program is targeted to veterinary science (Zamer, 2005)
From page 143...
... Nevertheless, the animal health and human pharmaceutical and biologics industries, companies that manufacture feeds and pet foods, private animal diagnostic laboratories, contract animal research laboratories, laboratory animal suppliers, and other private enterprises are major participants. The Animal Health Institute (AHI)


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