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9 Beyond Population Size: Examining Intricate Interactions Among Population Structure, Land Use, and Environment in Wolong Nature Reserve, China--Jianguo Liu, Li An, Sandra S. Batie, Scott L. Bearer, Xiaodong Chen, Richard E. Groop, Guangming He, Zai Liang,
Pages 217-237

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From page 217...
... . While these aggregate-level studies have generated important insights, there is an increasing recognition that focusing on aggregate variables, like population size or population growth, is not enough, because changes in population structure (e.g., age and arrangement of people into different households)
From page 218...
... . In this chapter, we use the Wolong Nature Reserve in China for the endangered giant panda to illustrate complex linkages among human population structure, land use, and panda habitat.
From page 219...
... Although human presence inside nature reserves may surprise many people in developed countries, it is very common in China (China's National Committee on Man and Biosphere, 2000) because the vast majority of the reserves were established in the past two decades, and a large number of people had already settled in those areas before they were designated as reserves (Liu et al., 2003c)
From page 220...
... . tion factors include population size, process (e.g., birth, death, and migration)
From page 221...
... ; income, Needs, sex, people Aspects Number Amount Electricity Birth, level, people; Percentage construction, of fuelwood sheep, cropland Variables of age, of of administration collection, of by Household income, pigs, Concerns, voltage) ; received; income; time Number of Education Major Migration, Number and Amount schools, plants.
From page 222...
... to the Wolong Nature Reserve Administration Bureau and ultimately to the local residents (Table 9-1)
From page 223...
... , and the most recent survey was conducted in summer 2004. The surveys include household interviews regarding fuelwood consumption, socioeconomic conditions, and demographic conditions (For more detailed information on survey data, see Liu et al.
From page 224...
... ; level; residents; a and different marital and fuelwood fuelwood in perceptions, needs, for local people cropland; of (heating, of occupation, food of of of group, education activities; sources According sex, Interviews Attitudes, concerns, wants; Amount consumed purposes human Location collection; Origins Number relationships household; Age, ethnic status, Human Livestock; Amount Income expenses Variables harvest Panda diameter height, Ground slope; Major and coverage; cover, Ground locations; species, and Tree data; human density; size, density; 9-2 of Household Road aspect, price; log: Canopy species, types; and points; plot weight, age, Studies distribution; TABLE Field Forest diameters, Stand history; Bamboo height, feces control truthing Locations activities; locations; Elevation, Electricity Fuelwood length,
From page 225...
... , national population census data in 1982 (Wenchuan County, 1983) , the 1996 Agricultural Census (Wolong Nature Reserve, 1996)
From page 226...
... First, their models use aggregated population size rather than households. Second, our multilevel model and household-level model are process-based, whereas their models are regression-based.
From page 227...
... , the total amount of fuelwood 6.50 6.00 Household/ 5.50 Persons 5.00 of 4.50 Number 4.00 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year FIGURE 9-3 Change in average household size over time.
From page 228...
... Through interviews with 328 people in the reserve about their activities in 1997 (Liu et al., unpublished data) , we found that the number of days that local residents participated in fuelwood collection increased with age, reached its peak in the age group of 25-59, and decreased sharply after age 60 (Figure 9-6a)
From page 229...
... 229 -8 el -6 2000in maeF -4 -2 0 Structure Percentage 2 ) (c Sex el Population and Ma 4 Age 6 8 80-84 -7470 -6460 -5450 -4440 -3430 20-24 -1410 40 old)
From page 230...
... error. Collection (years (years 20-24 20-24 standard Group Farmingof Group one Fuelwoodof 15-19 Age 15-19 Age Days indicates Female Male Days Female Male 10-14 bar 10-14 0 error (b)
From page 231...
... . Fuelwood consumption is influenced by household size as well as age structure (An et al., 2001)
From page 232...
... The subsidies provide significant household revenue, as it may account for about 20-25 percent of total annual income for most of the households involved (Sichuan Forestry Survey Institute and Wolong Nature Reserve, 2000)
From page 233...
... However, going beyond population size was more challenging than considering population size alone, because more detailed and more comprehensive data were needed, and more time and effort were also spent to analyze and interpret the data. Despite this challenge, population structure provides many unique insights and thus should be integrated into more studies at the local as well as national and global scales.
From page 234...
... Liu no Effects of Timber Harvesting and Fuelwood Collection on Giant Panda Habitat date Use. Unpublished manuscript, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
From page 235...
... Liu no Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Fuelwood Collection in a Nature Reserve. date Unpublished manuscript, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
From page 236...
... Yang, and H Zhang 2001b Ecological degradation in protected areas: The case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas.
From page 237...
... Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sichuan Forestry Survey Institute and Wolong Nature Reserve 2000 Forest Monitoring for Natural Forest Conservation Program in Wolong Nature Reserve.


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