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3 Good Practice Tools and Techniques
Pages 48-70

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From page 48...
... The policies and procedures necessary for putting these good practices in place are also discussed. Tools and techniques for human resource management are reviewed in detail in Chapter 4.
From page 49...
... , the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) , and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR)
From page 50...
... In addition to its ratepayers, TVA has many public and private stakeholders who are affected by how TVA manages the Tennessee River and TVA facilities and infrastructure. California Department of Water Resources DWR has about 2,500 employees, which is considerably fewer than either USACE or TVA.
From page 51...
... These grants are used at the discretion of the local governments with few state requirements. As a federal corporation, TVA is self-funded through rates paid by its electric power customers that cover all operating expenses.
From page 52...
... Project Management Completing construction projects within the original cost and schedule is a challenge for most organizations because of uncertainties in cost and schedule estimates. USACE addresses this challenge with a policy of adjusting designs to fit the budget unless the adjustments significantly alter the original scope.
From page 53...
... This geographic focus is reducing the pool of potential recruits but increasing the hiring success and retention rate. Centralized versus Decentralized Engineering Services The geographic area of responsibility for TVA and DWR is roughly equivalent to that of Reclamation regional offices.
From page 54...
... In-House versus Contract Services Since the 1990s, there has been a sustained effort in government to reduce the quantity of services performed by government employees and increase contractor-provided services. To function as a smart buyer, an organization that requires technical services often retains a minimum level of technical expertise in-house in order to select and manage outside contractors effectively.
From page 55...
... · Utilizing standard designs where possible. · Increasing involvement with project sponsors and stakeholders at all stages of project planning and design.
From page 56...
... While the days of huge new dam construction projects appear to be over, there is still a strong need for solid technical and engineering expertise to deal with the many infrastructure issues associated with Reclamation's aging facilities. However, responsibility for O&M for a number of these sites has been shifted from the bureau to the local water districts.
From page 57...
... The committee believes that the National Research Council report Outsourcing Management Functions for the Acquisition of Federal Facilities offers a good model for Reclamation to follow as it makes its determination of inherently governmental functions related to its infrastructure activities. The following section from the Executive Summary of that report describes the approach: Although design and construction activities are commercial and may be outsourced, management functions cannot be clearly categorized.
From page 58...
... 58 21ST CENTURY BUREAU OF RECLAMATION analysis of the factors of the case." Along these lines, it points out the need for agencies to maintain a core capability in key disciplines whether commercial or not to ensure that the government remains a knowledgeable and informed buyer of contracted services. The policy states as follows: Agencies must, however, have a sufficient number of trained and experi enced staff to manage Government programs properly.
From page 59...
... Moreover, PBSA approaches can be applied to many different types of service contracts, including those for high-level professional and technical services. Clear performance measures are a means of monitoring whether the contractor is performing successfully.
From page 60...
... Work has been under way since that time to redevelop a comprehensive set of procedures to provide consistency in project management throughout Reclamation. Project Management Policies, Directives, and Guidelines A Reclamation design and construction coordination team (RDCCT)
From page 61...
... , · Design data guidelines (about 80 percent complete as of May 2005) , · Drawing management portion of Information Management Handbook, Volume III, Drawing Management and Drafting Standards (USBR, 2000)
From page 62...
... Programming Annual work plans are developed for the majority of Reclamation projects as part of the annual Reclamation budget process. Project programming information includes project description, target schedule, and funding requirements by year, combined with funding justification (FAC 03-01)
From page 63...
... Accordingly, the incomplete 1999 estimate was used by Congress to authorize the project in December 2000. The committee notes that a rigorous project management process, including extensive preproject planning and detailed cost estimating procedures, is usually the most effective means of developing reasonable cost estimates.
From page 64...
... outline these functions for TSC design work. Quality control during the construction process is frequently part of a construction contract, but Reclamation maintains a cadre of construction inspectors in each region to assure quality construction.
From page 65...
... The view that the need for senior management decisions slows down good projects is ex plicitly rejected. A good decision process actually expedites projects, in that it assures that they have the necessary resources, support, and direc tion to go to successful completion and operation -- not merely to the next phase.
From page 66...
... It will review projects costing more than $10 million, projects deemed to pose a substantial risk for the bureau, and other projects designated by the commissioner. The committee believes that DEC's oversight should also include frontend planning activities to ensure the accuracy and completeness of project scopes, risk management plans, and execution plans before projects proceed to design, because some of the problems of project schedules and cost estimates may be caused by deficiencies in the planning process.
From page 67...
... An example of excellent stakeholder communications was observed by the committee at the Lower Colorado Dams Office. In the Lower Colorado region, power customers fund operation, maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation projects through their rates and have an oversight committee to review proposed O&M and rehabilitation plans.
From page 68...
... Similar efforts should be made to establish metrics and measure the performance of Reclamation's water management assets. Reclamation regional offices reported the use of some review tools, including annual, periodic, and comprehensive facility reviews, value engineering reviews, and peer review of endangered species recovery programs.
From page 69...
... Given the success of the planning process in the Lower Colorado region, the committee believes that all regions should develop and use such plans as a stakeholder communications tool and as a roadmap for meeting future requirements. The committee believes that effective planning is the key to O&M of Reclamation facilities.
From page 70...
... 2004. Adaptive Management for Water Resources: Project Planning.


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