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2 Global Drivers and Trajectories of Advanced Life Science Technologies
Pages 79-138

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From page 79...
... ; · social forces (e.g., efforts by developing countries to utilize health and agricultural biotechnology and nanotechnology to improve the wellbeing of their populations, as well as efforts to make agricultural and other practices more environmentally "friendly") ; and · political forces, such as the Canadian government's commitment to devote at least five percent of its research and development investment 79
From page 80...
... . In Mexico, a relatively recent national aspiration to become a regional leader in genomic medicine is driving a strongly supported effort to bolster the scientific and technological capacity to do so.5 In addition to the public health and social benefits expected of personalized health care, the Mexican government perceives the issue as one of national security and sovereignty.
From page 81...
... Accordingly, the first half of this chapter summarizes evidence and patterns that reflect the increasingly important roles of the global expansion of capital and goods, knowledge, and people in shaping the global technology landscape. In particular, we survey the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, nanobiotechnology, agricultural, and industrial sectors of the global life sciences industry (which reflect the expanding global flow in capital and goods, knowledge, and people)
From page 82...
... The latter is evident by current trends in the number of biotech companies in Australia, Brazil, Israel, and South Korea, as detailed below. With regard to increased international collaboration, the number of technological cooperation agreements in biotechnology rapidly grew from near zero in 1970 to almost 700 in 1985-1989 (more recent data are not yet available)
From page 83...
... ; (i.e., information genotype technology) , profiling computing Improved drug Alternative routes for Nanotechnology, delivery drug administration aerosol technology, microencapsulation, transdermal delivery technologies Medicine Improved Automated genomic Databases, gene and diagnosis tests protein chips Better treatments Provide cures for Biomedical and genome for infectious difficult-to-treat or databases, high disease untreatable throughput screening infections of compound structural libraries, nanotechnology Gene therapy Identify and treat Databases, gene chip, defective genes high-performance computing Xenotrans- Develop rejection-free Databases, animal plantation tissues and organs models, recombinant for transplantation methods Agriculture Transgenic crops Development of Genome sequencing disease, pest, and methods, databases environmental insult-resistant crops; manufacture of biological products Biomaterials Artificial tissue Develop tissue, stem Databases, transgenic and organs cell, and other crops/animals, engineering methods nanotechnology Biopolymers New materials for Databases, computing, biological and transgenic industrial crops/animals, applications nanotechnology Biodefense Strengthening Improvement and Gene chips, databases, biodefense production of vaccines nanotechnology, capabilities and prophylactics, detector hardware rapid diagnostics, pathogen detectors, and forensics Computing Performance Faster computing for Grid computing and improvement intensive analysis and supercomputers filtering; convergence of technologies Expansion of Develop and strengthen Advanced software biotech-specific biotech-specific and search applications software algorithms SOURCE: Adapted from presentation by Terence Taylor, Cuernavaca workshop.
From page 84...
... Health report, pharmaceutical sales in China reportedly increased 28 percent to reach $9.5 billion annually. Although that figure is relatively small compared to the global pharmaceutical market of $400-450 billion, industry analysts predict that China's large population size and flourishing economy will push the figure even higher in the future.13 Asia also boasts the emergence of several major stem cell research centers -- in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan -- promising not only exciting opportunities for expatriate students and scientists, but also future commercial success.
From page 85...
... The developing world market for these best-selling pharmaceuticals is expected to expand in the future, even as resource-poor countries continue to face serious public health problems associated with emerging infectious diseases. Over the next 20 years, the aging population in northwestern Europe is expected to increase by 50 to 60 percent.19 In the developing world, the same demographic is expected to increase 200 percent over the same time period.
From page 86...
... Growth in the biotechnology sector outside the United States, Canada, and the European Union is equally remarkable. For example: · the number of biotech companies in Brazil grew from 76 in 1993 to 354 in 200122; · the number of biotech companies in Israel increased from about 30 in 1990 to about 160 in 200023; · the number of publicly listed South Korean biotechnology firms grew from one in 2000 to 23 by 200224; · the Japan Bioindustry Association has about 300 corporate members, 100 public organization members, and 1,300 individual members (from universities)
From page 87...
... In their quest to emulate these biological phenomena, scientists have created the field of DNA nanotechnology, or nanobiotechnology,36 as well as the closely related field of DNA-based computation by algorithmic self-assembly.37 Although nanotechnology remains a fledgling field, according to a 2005 report published by NanoBiotech News, 61 nanotech-based drugs and drug delivery systems and 92 nano-based medical devices or diagnostics have already entered preclinical, clinical, or commercial development.38 For example, in January 2005 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the nanoparticle-based Abraxane, a solventfree form of the breast cancer drug Taxol (paclitaxel)
From page 88...
... 88 state 2004 33.3 46.0 19.8 6.4 330 1,444 187,500 nancialfi 2003 28.4 39.2 17.9 5.4 314 1,473 177,000 fiscal-year on 2002 24.3 29.6 20.5 9.4 318 1,466 194,600 primarily 2001 21.4 29.6 15.7 4.6 324 1,457 191,000 based data 2000 19.3 26.7 14.2 5.6 339 1,379 174,000 Financial 1999 16.1 22.3 10.7 4.4 300 1,273 162,000 1998 14.5 20.2 10.6 4.1 1993-2005. 316 1,311 155,000 a reports, 1997 13 17.4 9.0 4.5 317 1,274 141,000 1994-2004 industry 1996 10.8 14.6 7.9 4.6 294 1,287 118,000 Statistics, 1995 9.3 12.7 7.7 4.1 260 1,308 108,000 biotechnology annual Industry 1994 7.7 11.2 7.0 3.6 265 1,311 103,000 billions.
From page 89...
... in the country's Nanomaterials Science and Technology Initiative42; researchers at the University of Delhi are commercializing two U.S.-patented nanoparticle drug delivery systems; scientists at Panacea Biotec, in New Delhi, are conducting novel drug delivery research using mucoadhesive nanoparticles; and Dabur Research Foundation, located in Ghaziabad, is participating in Phase-I clinical trials of nanoparticle delivery of the anticancer drug paclitaxel.43 In China, researchers have tested a nanotechnology bone scaffold (with the ability to repair damaged skeletal tissue caused by injury resulting from car accidents) in patients.44 The number of nanotechnology patent applications from China ranks third in the world behind the United States and Japan.45 It is estimated that China's central and local governments will invest the equivalent of $600 million in nanotechnology and nanoscience between 2003 and 2007.46 Strikingly, scientists in China published more papers in these fields in international peer-reviewed journals than American scientists during 2004.47 In Brazil, the projected 2004-2007 budget for nanotechnology is the equivalent of $25 million; and three institutes, four networks, and about 300 scientists are working in the field.
From page 90...
... Environmental and societal benefits notwithstanding, ultimately, as with the pharmaceutical industry, economics is the bottom line. Any technology that results in lower production costs and higher profit margins will likely progress more rapidly than other, lower-yield
From page 91...
... 51 The recent rapid growth and global dispersion of commercialized genetically modified (GM) or transgenic crops, also known as biotech crops, suggests that efforts to improve and maximize agricultural productivity already serve as yet another powerful driver of advanced technologies.
From page 92...
... 92 GLOBALIZATION, BIOSECURITY, AND THE FUTURE OF THE LIFE SCIENCES 90 17 Biotech Crop Countries 80 70 50 Total 50 Hectares Industrial 40 Countries Developing Million30 Countries 2 10 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 FIGURE 2-1 Global area of biotech crops in million hectares (1996-2004)
From page 93...
... Paraguay* South Africa*
From page 94...
... Similar technological advances are being applied to "biopharming," the production of vaccine antigens and other biologically active proteins by transgenic plants. Plant-based manufacturing platforms are considered potentially low-cost, highly efficient, alternatives to other production methods and may be especially suitable for use in developing countries.60 However, the future of biopharming is unclear.
From page 95...
... GLOBAL DRIVERS AND TRAJECTORIES 95 TABLE 2-4 Top Biotech Crop Countries and Mega-countries, 2004 Country Hectares (millions) Key Crops United States 47.6 soybean maize cotton canola Argentina 16.2 soybean maize cotton Canada 5.4 canola maize soybean Brazil 5.0 soybean China 3.7 cotton Paraguay 1.2 soybean India 0.5 cotton S
From page 96...
... Iogen expects to begin construction of a 50million-gallon-a-year manufacturing plant in 2006.64 Currently, only about five percent of industrial chemicals are of biological origin (e.g., alcohols, amino acids, vitamins, pharmaceuticals)
From page 97...
... . As with other sectors of the life sciences industry, international collaboration and technology exchanges -- as reflected by the growing number of co-owned and foreign-owned patents, in addition to the growing number of international subcontracting and technological cooperation agreements -- are vital to the success of the U.S.
From page 98...
... are being developed in cooperation with international biotechnology companies, including firms in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.69 GLOBAL DISPERSION OF KNOWLEDGE Articles in international peer-reviewed journals and citations of those articles are commonly used as one of a variety of metrics to assess a country's scientific output, which, in turn, reflects a country's ability to generate new knowledge and adapt and benefit from research conducted globally. Likewise, patents are commonly used as an indicator of a country's technological capacity and output.
From page 99...
... , South Korea (1.53) , Belgium (1.32)
From page 100...
... 100 GLOBALIZATION, BIOSECURITY, AND THE FUTURE OF THE LIFE SCIENCES 0.700 Switzerland 0.600 Israel Sweden 0.500 Finland Denmark 0.400 UK Netherlands intensity Canada 0.300 Citation Australia Belgium US France Germany 0.200 Austria Spain Italy Rep. Singapore Greece Ireland Japan 0.100 Poland Russia Portugal Taiwan S
From page 101...
... 101 employed Researchers 1,000 Feature. Full-time researchers per 9.59 8.17 5.93 5.99 5.02 5.6 5.88 and -- 3.09 Ph.D.s - (6997)
From page 102...
... The United States and the European Union accounted for 74 percent of the applications in 2001, followed by Japan, which accounted for about 12.8 percent. Within the European Union, Germany accounted for the greatest amount of PCT patent application activity in 2001 (12.9 percent of global total)
From page 103...
... For example, between 1991 and 2000, biotechnology and ICT patent applications to the EPO increased 10.9 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively, compared to 6.9 percent growth overall. The United States showed particularly rapid growth in biotechnology patent activity, with 9.6 percent of its EPO patents in the field of biotechnology, compared to only 4.2 percent of the European Union's EPO patents and 3.5 percent for Japan.
From page 104...
... According to 2004 data compiled by the International Telecommunications Union, South Korea leads the world in terms of broadband79 penetration (24.9 percent total broadband penetration rate, including DSL, cable modems, and other) , followed by Hong Kong (20.9 percent)
From page 105...
... , then dropping down to 9.93 in Namibia, 7.77 in Cape Verde and 7.23 in South Africa. · Averaged across 182 countries and according to data compiled by the International Telecommunications Union, 55.1 percent of all telephone subscribers worldwide use cell phones (i.e., they have cellular mobile subscriptions)
From page 106...
... Global Dispersion of People While the previous sections addressed the global distribution of scientific and technological knowledge as represented by the use and development of advanced technologies in the life sciences industry and changing trends in relevant patents and publications, this section focuses on another vehicle for the global dispersion of knowledge: people. Global travel and migration of scientists, whether for a weekend conference, several years of study, or permanent relocation, is vital to scientific and technological progress -- in both the basic research arena and the commercial development of tools and technologies into commercial applications.
From page 107...
... The international mobility of foreign recipients of U.S. doctoral degrees leads to a globally dispersed, highly-skilled labor
From page 108...
... . Country-specific data from a 2001 NSF report indicate that the largest pool of foreign doctoral degree awardees in the United States in science and engineering fields originated from China (2,405 doctoral degrees awarded in 2001)
From page 109...
... Altogether, students from these countries earned more than 50 percent of science and engineering doctoral degrees awarded to foreign students (68,500 out of 138,000) , four times more than students from Europe (16,000, most of whom were from Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom, Italy, and France)
From page 110...
... of the People's Republic of China indicate that 1,877,500 undergraduate degrees Undergraduate Engineering Degrees Conferred by Institutions of Higher Education in India 200,000 Engineering 150,000 Degrees Conferred 100,000 Degrees 50,000 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 CHART SOURCE: NASSCOM.
From page 111...
... McKinsey Global Research Institute, New York. The report states "few of China's vast number of university graduates are capable of working successfully in the services export sector, and the fast-growing domestic economy absorbs most of those who could."
From page 112...
... Between 1985 and 2000, only 26 percent of South Koreans and 31 percent of Taiwanese doctorate recipients reported accepting offers of employment to remain in the United States. According to a 2003 article in The Economist, China's Ministry of Personnel estimated that some 580,000 Chinese students had studied overseas since the late 1970s, with only about 160,000 returning.94 For example, in 2001, 70 percent of science and engineering doctoral degree recipients from China reported accepting firm offers for employment or postdoctoral research in the United States.
From page 113...
... Indeed, in the most recent Global Trends report by the National Intelligence Council,99 the likely emergence of China, along with India, as new major global players is compared to the rise of Germany in the 19th century and the United States in the early 20th century. Several factors will fuel this rapid rise in economic and political power, including the active promotion of advanced technologies and the purchasing powers afforded by such large populations (China's population is projected by the U.S.
From page 114...
... ; the 2002 sequencing by Chinese scientists of the rice genome;106 the approval for market of several Chinese-produced vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics (with more than 150 health biotechnology products in clinical trials) ; the 2003 announcement that a Chinese firm had obtained the world's first drug license for a recombinant gene therapy; and China's liberal environment and access to human embryos for biotechnology research.107 Additionally, Chineseauthored health biotech publications appearing in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)
From page 115...
... Now, with an increasing focus on research and industrialization, universities are becoming strong producers of biotechnology knowledge.111 Additionally, China's large population base and market potential have attracted multinational and other foreign companies, several of which have established joint ventures with domestic companies.112 Although the large proportion of Chinese scientists who study abroad and remain to work may be limiting the growth of China's domestic biotechnology sector (e.g., Chinese scientists comprise the largest segment of U.S. science and engineering doctorates awarded to foreign citizens)
From page 116...
... REDI is already beginning to serve as a regional reference center for molecular diagnostics.122 South Korea In 1994, the South Korean government announced intentions to make South Korea one of the world's top seven biotechnology-producing countries by 2010. In 2002, South Korea won the bid to be the permanent host
From page 117...
... Basic scientific productivity in South Korea has increased markedly over the past decade. The number of health biotechnology-related publications (in international, peer-reviewed journals)
From page 118...
... Rather than pursuing a research career, those who stay home to study science and engineering often take R&D jobs in one of Taiwan's industrial science parks upon graduation.130 Eastern Europe and Central Asia131 This region in general is experiencing positive economic growth, leading to a reduction in poverty in some areas, but it is also still contending with serious health and social problems, such as the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, an aging population, and a shrinking workforce. In terms of advanced technologies, notable regional trends include the widespread use of personal computers and the Internet.
From page 119...
... Russia Russia currently faces a severe demographic challenge due to low birth rates, high emigration rates, and a high death rate from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases -- including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS) -- all of which are expected to continue to contribute to a shrinking working-age population.
From page 120...
... Already Brazil enjoys a critical mass of very well-trained scientists and strong public-sector support for research coupled with unparalleled biodiversity, offering the potential for the development of unique plantbased medicines and treatments.138 Brazil's healthcare biotechnology success is exemplified by Sao Paulobased Biobras's development and patenting of a recombinant human insulin in the 1990s -- one of only four companies worldwide to have done so at the time; the 2000 sequencing of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, which has encouraged other health-related genomics projects countrywide;139 the steadily increasing number of Brazilian-authored publications in international peer-reviewed journals; and, as mentioned previously, the rapid expansion of the private biotechnology sector, from 76 Brazilian firms in 1993 to 354 by 2001.140 Although the healthcare biotechnology
From page 121...
... More recently, Cuban scientists played a leading role in developing the world's first human vaccine with a synthetic carbohydrate antigen, for use in protecting against Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) disease.148 Cuba has built international collaborations to promote innovation within its biotechnology sector, particularly health biotechnology.
From page 122...
... The main driving force behind the growth of Cuba's health biotechnology sector has been the desire to improve the health of its citizens, as evidenced by strong governmental support.150 Cubans have one of the longest life expectancies in the Americas (76.7 years) , universal access to health care, and an integrated research/healthcare system enterprise that encourages the creation of innovative products.
From page 123...
... In terms of life sciences research and biotechnology development, the countries highlighted here were selected based on information recently published in the scientific literature. Egypt Egypt has emerged as a scientific leader among Arab states, particularly in agricultural biotechnology but also in the health biotechnology sector, as evidenced by its ability to rapidly respond to local health crises.155 For example, in response to an acute insulin shortage in 2002, an internationally partnered emergency plan led to local production of recombinant insulin, which had previously been largely (90 percent)
From page 124...
... The country currently exploits knowledge in the public domain more than it does novel contributions by its own research community, and most Egyptian biotechnology companies rely on international contacts rather than local academic research. This reliance on the international community has led to the creation of a global network of alliances among foreign experts and Egyptian scientists living both abroad and at home.160 Israel Israel has seen significant growth in the life sciences and biotechnology development over the past two decades.
From page 125...
... Saudi Arabia In December 2004, Abdul Latif Jameel Company, Ltd.165 (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) announced that it would be making a $1 million annual donation to the Arab Science and Technology Foundation (ASTF)
From page 126...
... . Like China, India's rise to economic prominence will have a regional impact, including throughout Southeast and Central Asia and in Iran and other Middle East countries, with whom India will likely pursue strategic partnerships in many sectors, including the life sciences and its associated industries.
From page 127...
... to develop novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of various types of cancer.171 In the agricultural arena, India has actively promoted the development and use of genetically modified crops nationwide and throughout Asia. In 2002, the Indian government held a conference in New Delhi, at which 18 Asian countries formed an alliance to deal with issues surrounding the introduction of GMOs.172 According to a 2002 report in Nature Biotechnology, the participating countries planned to help each other build scientific capacity to assess the environmental and food safety of GMOs, establish appropriate administrative and legal frameworks, and provide training and other facilities for strengthening the infrastructure for handling GMOs.
From page 128...
... By focusing on arms, textiles, and mining, South Africa has developed a strong scientific and technological base over the past several decades, even while remaining relatively isolated from the international community while under the apartheid regime.177 South Africa's industrial success in these areas led to a confidence that has fostered more recent huge strides in agricultural and health biotechnology. In terms of health biotechnology, the government has established initiatives to encourage international partnerships in the life sciences industry; biotech start-ups, like Shimoda Biotech (with a focus on cyclodextrin drug delivery)
From page 129...
... 2003. Developing a platform for genomic medicine in Mexico.
From page 130...
... 2004. The scientific muscle of Brazil's health biotechnology.
From page 131...
... 2005. Nanotechnology and the developing world.
From page 132...
... This is no less so for "genetically modified" foods. It is beyond the scope of this report to provide an in depth treatment of the debate over the safety and ethical use of GM crops and commodities.
From page 133...
... Nature Biotechnology 22(Suppl.)
From page 134...
... 2004. Health biotechnology in China-reawakening a giant.
From page 135...
... 2004. Health biotechnology in China -- reawakening of a giant.
From page 136...
... 2004. The scientific muscle of Brazil's health biotechnology.
From page 137...
... 2003. Developing a platform for genomic medicine in Mexico.
From page 138...
... Nature Biotechnology 20(7)


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