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From page 439...
... appendix C Ecologic and Partially Ecologic Studies in Epidemiology Individual-level studies collect information on outcome, exposure, and covariates (potential confounders and effect modifiers) for each individual.
From page 440...
... 440 APPENDIX C ing bias in ecologic studies is quite difficult in practice. Nevertheless, certain design features tend to reduce ecologic bias, including the following: 1.
From page 441...
... APPENDIX C 441 ecologic exposure variable is the fraction exposed in the group (aggregated from dichotomous exposures at the individual level)
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