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Pages 1-5

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From page 1...
... During the past 20 years, a counterfeiting threat has emerged with the evolution of new reprographic technology and the related emergence of a new class of counterfeiters: nonprofessional, independent individuals with limited, if any, traditional counterfeiting skills. These "casual counterfeiters" took advantage of the increased availability of advanced color copiers and color scanner-computer-printer systems during the mid-1980s.
From page 2...
... Additionally, the orientation of features may not necessarily work optimally with high-speed machine feeders, which can limit the machine's functionality, or in accommodating the visually impaired. CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTERFEITERS AND A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO THE COUNTERFEITING THREAT While carrying out this study the committee found it helpful to classify counterfeiters into five categories: · Primitive counterfeiters -- who do not use digital technology, but create counterfeits using little more than manual artistry to modify a piece of currency in order to increase its value and obtain financial gain; · Hobbyists -- who counterfeit occasionally and use typical desktop computer equipment and available crafting supplies, sometimes in creative ways; · Petty criminals -- who counterfeit in a dedicated manner and actively invest in specialized computer equipment and materials; · Professional counterfeiters -- who focus the efforts of a large group of people on the sophisticated production and distribution of counterfeits; and · State-sponsored counterfeiters -- who may use the very same high-precision equipment that the government uses to manufacture notes.
From page 3...
... Thus, a comprehensive response to counterfeiting must include ways to do the following: · Prevent or deter production, through the use of technology blockers and note features that are difficult to simulate; · Empty counterfeit stockpiles, through law enforcement programs; · Disrupt passing of counterfeit currency, by means of public education and machine authentication of currency; and · Remove counterfeits from continued circulation, through the identification of counterfeit currency by individuals and by special methods within the banking system. Banknote features are important elements of counterfeiting deterrence at each stage of this system.
From page 4...
... Other types of ink-jet printers and electrophotographic printer technologies produce counterfeits that can be passed, even though no counterfeits produced with such equipment are currently able to withstand minimal scrutiny by a trained money handler. Thermal printing and digital photography are available but are not specifically useful for printing counterfeit notes; however, they are useful for simulating specific features.
From page 5...
... The trend means that the protection against counterfeiting afforded by a two-dimensional printed image casually viewed in reflected light is highly diminished. The second most pressing threat related to counterfeiting in the future -- and the more insidious one -- involves what can be done as a result of improved communication available via the Internet.

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