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1 Introduction
Pages 1-6

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From page 1...
... The world has substantial experience with systems of research, observations, assessment, and decision support or knowledge systems that have been designed to foster goals of economic prosperity, human development, or environmental conservation -- examples include the international agricultural research system, the world's campaigns against malaria, and efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. But many international research efforts for sustainable development have been initiated and developed ad hoc, learning little from relevant social science knowledge, analogous efforts in other fields, and reflection on their own experiences.
From page 2...
... The list of candidates that emerged from this process was evaluated by the task force with a view toward inviting to the workshop a diverse group of cases and managers spanning a wide range of topical and institutional settings. Program managers were selected largely from the federal government and in many cases were responsible for managing research programs within or funded by their institutions.
From page 3...
... 2. Program management Hypothesis: Successful efforts to develop programs linking knowledge with action generally adopt a project orientation and organization, with dynamic leaders accountable for achieving 1The case summaries are included as an appendix because they: provide valuable information about the programs represented at the workshop and how they contribute to sustainability; offer specific examples of and lessons from program managers' efforts to link knowledge with action; and include resources for additional information, such as program URLs and program managers' contact information.
From page 4...
... These boundary organizations often construct informal and sometimes even partially hidden spaces in which project managers can foster user-producer dialogues, joint product definition, and end-to-end system building free from distorting dominance by groups committed to the status quo. In order to maintain balance, most effective boundary organizations make themselves jointly accountable to both the science and user communities.
From page 5...
... Workshop participants nonetheless found the distinction between producers and users of technical knowledge to be helpful, and we retain it here. The first day of the two-day workshop featured panel presentations in which most of the invited program managers gave brief, informal presentations on their experiences linking knowledge with action for societal goals.
From page 6...
... More specifically, discussions consistently tended toward the nature of federal government programs and the institutional hurdles to innovation that program managers in such organizations face. This workshop summary is therefore divided into two sections.

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