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5 Perspectives from Other Kinds of Epidemiological Research
Pages 16-18

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From page 16...
... While differences between boys and girls and across age categories are frequently explored, unexamined differences related to wealth, region of the country, and other factors related to socialization may have profound influences on how children are affected by media. Other contextual effects insufficiently addressed in media literature include school settings, neighborhoods, family structures, and social and cultural interactions; all these factors may have important influences on the way children process media exposure and may in turn be influenced by media themselves.
From page 17...
... Counterfactual causality, originally identified by philosopher David Hume as the "but for" condition -- the case in which situation x would not be true but for intervention y -- has been used in contemporary research to account for alternate outcomes that result from differing exposure to particular influences. This line of analysis compares scenarios in which two conditions with similar features produce very different outcomes as a result of the presence or absence of intervening factors.
From page 18...
... While models that posit causality are needed to support the choices of interventions to evaluate, conclusively resolving the relative contributions of individual versus social factors (nature versus nurture arguments) may not be necessary to achieve public health objectives.

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