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4 Tier 1 International Munitions Processing Technologies
Pages 29-53

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From page 29...
... Army might obtain or generate on Detonation-type destruction technologies rely on the ability the performance of these technologies would certainly be of the energy from explosive charges within a containment helpful in obtaining regulatory approvals to deploy such vessel to efficiently destroy recovered chemical munitions technologies. Moreover, the process of developing a detailed and the agent and energetics contained therein.
From page 30...
... In evaluating detonation-type components: the detonation chamber, an expansion chamber, technologies, the degree of agent destruction in the actual and an emissions control unit, the latter comprising a particle detonation event should be measured. Of course, permits filter and a bank of activated carbon adsorption beds (NRC, and regulatory approvals of such systems will typically 2002)
From page 31...
... The Destruction Units gravel is renewed periodically because it fractures during the explosions. Bags containing water are suspended near the The CDC T-10 model tested in Belgium can treat com projectile to help absorb blast energy and to produce steam, plete chemical munitions up to 105-mm in diameter.A larger which reacts with agent vapors.After the detonation chamber mobile unit (TC-25)
From page 32...
... A catalytic oxidation unit the gas stream indicates that no detectable agent reaches the (CATOX) 6 oxidizes carbon monoxide and organic vapors adsorption bed.8 from the gas stream prior to venting through a two-stage carbon adsorption bed system.
From page 33...
... In five tests in which CDC system and the operating procedure were modified to agent destruction was enhanced by the addition of gaseous enhance worker safety and reduce potential emissions of oxygen to the detonation chamber prior to the blast, the DEs residual chemical agent or agent decomposition products. from detonation ranged from 99.965 to 99.996 percent.10 Extensive monitoring was conducted to determine agent DE These calculated efficiencies were based on measurement of and establish the quantity and nature of the decomposition residual agent in the pea gravel and the walls of the detona products (De Bisschop and Blades, 2002)
From page 34...
... Estimated throughput rates Routine munition preparation operations are conducted per 10-hour day for representative U.S. munitions are shown by workers in Level C PPE.
From page 35...
... is the EDS-2, which, like the CDC, performs the complete Public concerns in the United States about using the sequence of accessing the chemical agent, destroying the CDC to treat chemical munitions are not known at this time. agent, and yielding solid debris that may be disposed of by a However, the extensive U.S.
From page 36...
... generated by the explosion breaks open the munition, detonates any energet- shock wave, followed by high-speed cavitation and then a ics contained therein, and releases the chemical agent. The fireball.
From page 37...
... figure 4-2 Off-gas Controlled Treatment Identification Detonation Storage Hold Tank Meets STEL Cold Charcoal Plasma Kanda Port 800 m Drain about 600 munitions Fragments (meets GPL level) Drain To Conventional Waste Treatment Facility FIGURE 4-3 Outline of the Kanda project.
From page 38...
... in the empty inner vessel to destroy any residual agent by After the door is sealed, air is evacuated from the inner means of the shock wave and heat from the detonation of vessel using a vacuum pump. This process takes about the explosive.
From page 39...
... into permitting requirements and procedures.As of the close of information gathering for this report, Kobe Steel has not Country-by-Country Experience yet applied for a permit to test DAVINCH technology in the United States. The DAVINCH DV45 unit has been used in Japan, at Kanda Port, to dispose of 600 World War II chemical bombs, some containing a lewisite/mustard agent mix and Process Efficacy/Throughput others containing vomiting agents (Lefebvre et al., 2005a; DAVINCH technology appears to be well suited for Asahina et al., 2005; Asahina, 2005)
From page 40...
... The DAVINCH footprint, including the Yellow bombs per shot with an average cycle time of detonation vessel, gas treatment, lab space, and personnel 150 minutes, or 3.2 shots per 8-hour day. Over a 3.5-month support, is a rectangle having dimensions of about 80 meters period, 600 bombs were destroyed in 250 shots; an average of by 60 meters, based on the Kanda Port experience.
From page 41...
... Depending on the agent level detected in the offgas, worker exposure to agent after the munitions are destroyed. it can be either returned to the inner vessel for further agent destruction in a cleansing shot or sent to a gas treatment
From page 42...
... The DAVINCH technology uses a large detonation chamber in which chemical munitions and their contents are Secondary Waste Issues destroyed when donor charges surrounding the munitions are detonated under a near vacuum. Although the process The waste streams produced by the DAVINCH technol- does not require use of a reagent to destroy the agentthe ogy are (1)
From page 43...
... provided in Table 4-6. It is probably not cost effective to dispose of items unlikely Chemical munitions are placed in a cardboard box or carto contain agent, e.g., containers that have been previously rier, preferably by robot but if need be, manually.
From page 44...
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From page 45...
... The kilns treatment steps may include use of a quench tower to cool the have been both safe and effective for this application. Using gases to prevent dioxins and furans from forming, as well as this experience as a basis, the Dynasafe static kiln has been various scrubbers and equipment to capture fine particulates modified to destroy chemical munitions and was doing so and to remove heavy metals and metallic oxides.
From page 46...
... getics within them detonate, causing the agent to be exposed The Dynasafe static kilns and related material handling to the resulting shock wave, blast pressure, and heat. It is equipment are large: For example, the largest unit, the possible, however, that for some items, the energetics and/or SK2000, is 6 meters long, 5.5 meters deep, and 8 meters high.
From page 47...
... TNT-equivalent, the The average throughput rate will include the periodic SK2000 can accept at least 20 loads per hour, a cycle time multihour clean-burning period, when munitions are not of 3 minutes per load. The throughput rate for operation with fed into the detonation chamber, and the scrap metal in the chemical munitions will be less and will depend on how the bottom of the chamber is heated to 550C-650C to meet Dynasafe is operated, the explosive loading, and the compo- general population limit (GPL)
From page 48...
... As noted above, pyrolysis in the detonation chamber is Public and Regulatory Acceptability in a U.S. Context to be followed by offgas treatment, including, as needed, Although Dynasafe has not been permitted for use in the a cyclone, a combustion chamber, a quench tank, and United States for chemical munitions, it will be undergoing various scrubbers and filters.
From page 49...
... agent fills (which was in progress as this report was being prepared) , the Dynasafe static kiln demonstrates the ability Process Cost Issues to safely and effectively access the agent in such munitions, destroy the chemical agents inside, and process secondary Although no quantitative cost information was avail- wastes, then it could be a viable technology for use in disposable to the committee, qualitative factors indicate that the ing of U.S.
From page 50...
... The experience that a given suppliers of detonation chambers indicated that they will be type of system has accumulated in processing conven- able to comply with the requirements of the ASME Code for tional and chemical munitions is a significant factor pressure vessels subjected to intermittent impact loadings. indicator in the choice of technology.
From page 51...
... : hold and test in 750-lb bomb if most of chemical munitions throughput rates are expansion tank agent is drained first 20/day for 8-in. projectile, 40/day for 155-mm projectile, 120/day for 105-mm projectile and 4.2 in.
From page 52...
... Finding 4-5. The Dynasafe static kiln technology has been demonstrated to be effective in destroying small conven FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS tional munitions and explosives, small chemical munitions containing explosives, and in destroying some chemical Finding 4-1.
From page 53...
... Army Edgewood Chemical-Biological Command. SK2000: Its Application for Old Chemical Munitions Destruction at DeMil International.


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