Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:

10 Morbidity Results
Pages 45-67

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 45...
... The exception is MCS scores in groups B and D, which show differences of around 5 points, considered moderate in size. Moreover, all differences between participant and control PCS and MCS scores were statistically significant, except for MCS and PCS scores in analysis group C, which contained the subjects potentially exposed to active agents.
From page 46...
... aGroup A = participants potentially exposed only to BG or MAA; group B = participants potentially exposed only to TOF; group C = par ticipants potentially exposed to any active chemical or biological agent; group D = participants potentially exposed only to simulants and not in groups A or B bt-test value based on pooled variance estimate.
From page 47...
... Age was significantly associated with PCS and MCS scores in the majority of analysis groups, while race differences 60 Participant Control 50 44.93 44.59 44.2 44.14 42.14 42.82 42.8 42.64 42.44 42.36 40 Average PCS Score 30 20 10 0 A B C D TOTAL Study Group FIGURE 10-1 Average SF-36 physical component scores (PCS) by study group and participation status.
From page 48...
... Although participants have uniformly smaller adjusted mean SF-36 summary scores than controls, there were differences between PCS and MCS scores. Adjusted mean PCS scores all showed small differences between participants and controls, roughly two points, with the group C difference not reaching statistical significance.
From page 49...
...  MORBIDITY RESULTS TABLE 10-3 Mean SF-36 Subscale Scores, by Analysis Group and Participation Status, with Results of t-Test Comparisons Analysis Groupa and SF-36 Subscaleb t-Testc Participant Control Group A PF 42.30 43.78 3.14, 2,794 df, = .0017 P RP 43.79 45.74 4.17, 2,842 df, < .0001 P BP 45.88 47.59 4.05, 2,845 df, < .0001 P GH 42.73 45.40 5.79, 2,840 df, < .0001 P VT 48.56 50.97 5.34, 2,811 df, < .0001 P SF 46.25 48.09 3.99, 2,831 df, < .0001 P RE 46.41 48.63 4.72, 2,850 df, < .0001 P MH 48.95 51.07 4.67, 2,814 df, < .0001 P Group B PF 42.48 45.32 2.80, 597 df, = .0053 P RP 42.99 46.56 3.37, 601 df, = .0008 P BP 43.70 46.81 3.20, 603 df, = .0015 P GH 40.49 44.50 3.72, 605 df, = .0002 P VT 46.05 50.04 3.83, 601 df, = .0001 P SF 42.05 46.89 4.24, 605 df, < .0001 P RE 42.72 47.72 4.14, 602 df, < .0001 P MH 44.31 49.33 4.28, 598 df, < .0001 P Group C PF 42.30 42.32 0.03, 698 df, P = .9764 RP 43.48 44.06 0.61, 702 df, P = .5423 BP 45.53 45.86 0.39, 705 df, P = .6935 GH 41.92 43.36 1.61, 701 df, P = .1071 VT 47.40 48.73 1.44, 703 df, P = .1492 SF 45.93 45.48 -0.47, 706 df, P = .6378 RE 45.78 46.34 0.56, 702 df, P = .5781 MH 48.49 49.47 1.04, 706 df, P = .2999 Group D PF 42.69 44.29 1.91, 884 df, = .0565 P RP 43.87 46.35 3.02, 899 df, = .0026 P BP 45.12 47.90 3.77, 901 df, = .0002 P GH 42.20 45.09 3.52, 901 df, = .0004 P VT 47.41 50.73 4.07, 890 df, < .0001 P SF 44.90 48.36 4.29, 895 df, < .0001 P RE 45.45 49.36 4.80, 901 df, < .0001 P MH 47.18 50.64 4.17, 893 df, < .0001 P aGroup A = participants potentially exposed only to BG or MAA; group B = participants potentially exposed only to TOF; group C = participants potentially exposed to any active chemical or biological agent; group D = participants potentially exposed only to simulants and not in groups A or B bPF = physical functioning; RP = role physical; BP = bodily pain; GH = general health; VT = vitality; SF = social functioning; RE = role emotional; and MH = mental health.
From page 50...
... 0 LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN PROJECT SHAD TABLE 10-4 Mean SF-36 Summary Scores, by Analysis Group and Various Other Factors, with Results of FTest Comparisons Analysis Group and Factor* Mean Value PCS Mean Value MCS F-Test F-Test Group A 28.70, 1 df 12.05, 1 df Age -- -- P < 0.0001 P = 0.0005 Race 7.64, 1 df White 45.40 50.33 3.75, 1 df P = 0.0078 Nonwhite 43.00 48.46 P = 0.0529 Pay grade 13.13, 2 df 5.74, 2 df E1–E3 41.58 47.71 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0032 E4–E8 42.65 49.05 Officer 48.36 51.43 Branch 2.58, 1 df Marine 48.06 47.29 3.43, 1 df P = 0.1080 Navy 44.72 51.51 P = 0.0643 Smoking 36.81, 1 df 6.38, 1 df Yes 44.67 48.61 P < 0.0001 P = 0.0116 No 48.11 50.18 Drinking 51.12, 1 df 21.97, 1 df Yes 47.98 50.54 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 No 44.80 48.25 78.73, 1 df Body Mass Index -- -- 1.30, 1 df P < 0.0001 P = 0.2540 Group B Age -- 0.20, 1 df -- 2.64, 1 df P = 0.6510 P = 0.1048 Race 4.01, 1 df White 44.38 47.28 1.93, 1 df P = 0.0457 Nonwhite 41.55 44.70 P = 0.1652 Pay grade E1–E3 43.51 2.98, 2 df 46.00 0.56, 2 df E4–E8 44.57 P = 0.0514 46.96 P = 0.5721 Officer 40.82 45.01 Branch 24.96, 1 df Marines 42.53 0.77, 1 df 42.74 P < 0.0001 Navy 43.40 P = 0.3809 49.24 Smoking 14.51, 1 df Yes 40.94 45.25 1.14, 1 df P = 0.0002 No 44.99 46.73 P = 0.2866 Drinking 22.12, 1 df Yes 45.11 47.08 3.29, 1 df P < 0.0001 No 40.82 44.90 P = 0.0702 11.25, 1 df Body Mass Index -- -- 0.14, 1 df P = 0.0008 P = 0.7120
From page 51...
... * Group A = participants potentially exposed only to BG or MAA; group B = participants potentially exposed only to TOF; group C = participants potentially exposed to any active chemical or biological agent; group D = participants potentially exposed only to simulants and not in groups A or B
From page 52...
... * Group A = participants potentially exposed only to BG or MAA; group B = participants potentially exposed only to TOF; group C = participants potentially exposed to any active chemical or biological agent; group D = participants potentially exposed only to simulants and not in groups A or B
From page 53...
... We note that although group C participants were the only subjects potentially exposed to active agents, neither adjusted mean PCS or MCS scores differed from those of group C controls. Analysis of Group A "Factorial Design" The subjects in group A were exposed only to Bacillus globigii (BG)
From page 54...
... Scores for Subjects in Group A (Standard Errors in Parentheses) , by Agent, with Adjustment for Age, Race, Branch, Pay Grade, Smoking, Drinking, and Body Mass Index (Model 1)
From page 55...
... An analysis of the independent effects of BG and MAA exposure in group A found that neither agent was associated with a large change in SF-36 summary score, although both agents had a statistically significant effect on both PCS and MCS adjusted mean scores. We did not see a clear dose-response relationship between the number of tests in group A and either PCS or MCS, but there was a statistically significant linear trend.
From page 56...
... are shown, with statistically significant odds ratios shown in bold. TABLE 10-8 Mean Somatization Scores, Unadjusted and Adjusted, for Participants and Controls, by Analysis Group Adjusteda Unadjusted Participants Controls Participants Controls Group Ac 2.83b 2.38b 2.15 1.63 Group Bc 3.49b 3.62b 2.59 2.90 Group Cc 3.02b 2.18b 2.59 1.62 Group Dc 2.90b 2.76b 2.27 1.98 aAdjusted for age, race, pay grade, branch, smoking, drinking, and body mass index.
From page 57...
... cAdjusted for age, race, pay grade, branch, smoking, drinking, and body mass index. TABLE 10-10 Number of Medical Conditions for Participants and Controls, with Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORs)
From page 58...
... Sleep apnea, anemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and dermatitis/eczema/ psoriasis did not fit into any categories. Statistically significant odds ratios in bold.
From page 59...
... , and the inclusion of conditions such as arthritis calls into doubt the utility of these data for further analyses. Table 10-14 shows self-reported symptoms, rather than medical conditions, for participants and controls, along with adjusted ORs.
From page 60...
... (N = 1,326) and BMI 95% CI N N Group A Hypertension 949 766 1.24 1.00–1.53 Coronary heart disease 338 242 1.30 1.01–1.68 Heart attack 265 186 1.23 0.93–1.62 Angina 374 261 1.31 1.02–1.67 Other heart condition 157 112 1.59 0.61–4.13 Cataracts/eye lens 497 397 1.14 0.92–1.42 Conjunctivitis 85 36 2.85 1.54–5.25 Sinusitis 455 290 1.63 1.30–2.04 Chronic bronchitis 230 156 1.56 1.15–2.12 Emphysema 106 139 1.28 0.89–1.83 Asthma 157 115 1.20 0.85–1.69 Kidney failure 16 13 0.78 0.22–2.75 Bladder infection 235 148 1.48 1.09–1.99 Pancreatitis 33 28 1.17 0.59–2.31 Diabetes 363 279 1.24 0.96–1.59 Gallstones 163 110 1.15 0.82–1.61 Hepatitis B 37 25 0.88 0.41–1.86 Hepatitis C 26 23 0.91 0.42–1.97 Any other hepatitis 46 37 0.85 0.50–1.47 Cirrhosis 33 23 1.54 0.73–3.26 Rheumatoid arthritis 303 244 1.06 0.82–1.37 Lupus 14 10 0.96 0.32–2.88 Multiple sclerosis 5 4 0.91 0.06–14.63 Crohn's disease 13 9 1.43 0.46–4.1 Stomach/peptic ulcer 214 154 1.24 0.92–1.67 Ulcerative colitis 51 44 0.94 0.53–1.66 Hearing loss 567 405 1.31 1.06–1.61 Migraines 171 112 1.86 1.28–2.71 Stroke 107 71 1.27 0.82–1.96 Neuropathy 320 203 1.69 1.30–2.20 Seizures 32 34 1.05 0.53–2.09 Sleep apnea 319 222 1.31 1.00–1.70 Anemia 75 52 1.29 0.79–2.11 Thyroid condition 98 82 1.12 0.76–1.66 Cancer 263 185 1.43 1.08–1.89 Chronic fatigue syndrome 100 41 2.55 1.51–4.30 Depression 350 234 1.68 1.30–2.16 Schizophrenia 19 11 4.34 0.95–19.89 Manic depressive disorder 42 29 1.42 0.70–2.88 PTSD 105 88 0.99 0.65–1.50 Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis 269 135 1.83 1.36–2.45 Parkinson's 9 5 2.39 0.48–12.02 ALS 2 1 1.70 0.15–18.89 Other neurodegenerative disease 61 18 3.77 1.81–7.84
From page 61...
... (N = 230) and BMI 95% CI Group B N N Hypertension 241 138 1.12 0.64–1.96 Coronary heart disease 74 37 1.28 0.59–2.79 Heart attack 57 25 1.29 0.56–2.97 Angina 108 48 2.12 1.06–4.16 Other heart condition 42 29 2.07 0.06–72.76 Cataracts/eye lens 101 46 1.01 0.55–1.87 Conjunctivitis 23 10 1.64 0.49–5.50 Sinusitis 121 53 1.86 1.00–3.44 Chronic bronchitis 68 32 1.68 0.70–4.04 Emphysema 41 14 1.21 0.43–3.42 Asthma 46 22 0.98 0.45–2.14 Kidney failure 6 0 -- Bladder infection 61 20 1.66 0.78–3.65 Pancreatitis 12 3 3.43 0.35–34.09 Diabetes 88 50 0.87 0.45–11.66 Gallstones 27 20 1.22 0.43–3.72 Hepatitis B 15 4 1.77 0.19–16.33 Hepatitis C 14 8 0.62 0.17–2.34 Any other hepatitis 11 5 0.86 0.15–5.06 Cirrhosis 5 6 0.66 0.05–8.16 Rheumatoid arthritis 99 41 2.28 1.09–4.74 Lupus 4 1 -- Multiple sclerosis 2 0 -- Crohn's disease 2 1 0.92 0.08–11.04 Stomach/peptic ulcer 62 25 1.93 0.81–4.56 Ulcerative colitis 17 2 2.63 0.53–13.03 Hearing loss 154 55 2.08 1.14–3.79 Migraines 70 25 3.15 1.16–8.58 Stroke 23 12 1.05 0.30–3.67 Neuropathy 88 34 1.46 0.70–3.3 Seizures 18 6 1.14 0.28–4.69 Sleep apnea 91 52 0.98 0.51–1.86 Anemia 20 12 2.83 0.56–14.26 Thyroid condition 19 9 2.55 0.55–11.87 Cancer 56 24 1.27 0.52–3.09 Chronic fatigue syndrome 31 12 9.27 1.12–76.80 Depression 136 56 2.55 1.33–4.91 1.68 Schizophrenia 12 4 0.33–8.66 Manic depressive disorder 24 8 3.20 0.67–15.41 PTSD 91 28 5.87 1.99–17.33 Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis 52 28 1.85 0.71–4.82 Parkinson's 6 0 -- ALS 1 0 -- Other neurodegenerative disease 18 4 2.85 0.31–25.93 continued
From page 62...
... (N = 376) and BMI 95% CI Group C N N Hypertension 211 232 1.06 0.69–1.65 Coronary heart disease 67 82 0.91 0.55–1.50 Heart attack 50 66 0.85 0.49–1.46 Angina 71 90 0.93 0.58–1.51 Other heart condition 36 38 0.64 0.06–6.61 Cataracts/eye lens 106 104 1.20 0.77–1.86 Conjunctivitis 23 19 2.52 0.98–6.47 Sinusitis 115 86 1.46 0.93–2.28 Chronic bronchitis 57 45 1.18 0.62–2.24 Emphysema 35 36 1.21 0.61–2.38 Asthma 42 32 1.44 0.74–2.82 Kidney failure 5 3 1.59 0.09–27.74 Bladder infection 56 50 1.14 0.66–1.97 Pancreatitis 13 8 1.81 0.49–6.69 Diabetes 80 90 0.68 0.41–1.13 Gallstones 41 39 0.82 0.43–1.55 Hepatitis B 5 11 0.33 0.08–1.36 Hepatitis C 4 10 0.40 0.08–2.05 Any other hepatitis 6 9 0.97 0.29–3.29 Cirrhosis 4 6 0.28 0.03–2.61 Rheumatoid arthritis 66 69 1.30 0.78–2.15 Lupus 1 4 0.35 0.04–3.45 Multiple sclerosis 0 0 -- Crohn's disease 4 3 1.68 0.28–10.26 Stomach/peptic ulcer 57 60 1.79 1.04–3.08 Ulcerative colitis 19 7 4.99 1.29–19.30 Hearing loss 119 121 0.99 0.64–1.53 Migraines 45 41 1.21 0.66–2.24 Stroke 18 21 1.46 0.60–3.53 Neuropathy 70 62 1.31 0.79–2.19 Seizures 14 9 2.02 0.57–7.15 Sleep apnea 74 73 0.97 0.57–1.65 Anemia 28 21 1.69 0.76–3.77 Thyroid condition 25 23 1.17 0.52–2.65 Cancer 69 60 1.35 0.79–2.32 Chronic fatigue syndrome 26 25 1.65 0.78–3.60 Depression 86 84 1.19 0.74–1.91 Schizophrenia 2 9 0.16 0.02–1.77 Manic depressive disorder 8 9 0.72 0.14–3.58 PTSD 17 27 0.54 0.20–1.48 Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis 66 49 1.71 0.96–3.03 Parkinson's 6 8 0.79 0.23–2.72 ALS 0 1 -- Other neurodegenerative disease 17 6 3.25 0.84–12.59
From page 63...
... (N = 498) and BMI 95% CI Group D N N Hypertension 254 290 0.92 0.62–1.35 Coronary heart disease 80 86 1.21 0.73–2.01 Heart attack 61 63 1.34 0.78–2.31 Angina 91 94 1.45 0.92–2.27 Other heart condition 48 41 0.95 0.12–7.86 Cataracts/eye lens 118 135 1.16 0.78–1.72 Conjunctivitis 22 22 0.96 0.42–2.22 Sinusitis 114 119 1.02 0.68–1.52 Chronic bronchitis 66 54 1.91 1.08–3.38 Emphysema 42 42 1.21 0.65–2.26 Asthma 41 52 1.33 0.75–2.37 Kidney failure 3 2 1.77 0.29–10.83 Bladder infection 61 54 1.68 0.99–2.87 Pancreatitis 6 20 0.28 0.07–1.02 Diabetes 85 108 1.17 0.75–1.83 Gallstones 27 35 0.79 0.39–1.61 Hepatitis B 9 19 0.73 0.27–1.96 Hepatitis C 5 9 1.00 0.26–3.86 Any other hepatitis 8 10 1.48 0.44–4.44 Cirrhosis 8 5 1.85 0.48–7.08 Rheumatoid arthritis 80 92 0.99 0.62–1.58 Lupus 4 2 4.14 0.42–41.20 Multiple sclerosis 4 5 1.67 0.36–7.70 Crohn's disease 3 1 2.25 0.20–25.20 Stomach/peptic ulcer 51 59 1.00 0.59–1.71 Ulcerative colitis 16 14 1.81 0.71–4.63 Hearing loss 122 147 1.01 0.68–1.51 Migraines 59 53 1.70 0.98–2.94 Stroke 24 32 0.67 0.28–1.58 Neuropathy 81 80 1.25 0.79–1.98 Seizures 10 11 2.05 0.59–7.18 Sleep apnea 101 92 1.43 0.91–2.24 Anemia 26 30 0.83 0.41–1.69 Thyroid condition 40 31 1.84 0.95–3.53 Cancer 71 59 1.40 0.86–2.28 Chronic fatigue syndrome 29 21 2.46 1.19–5.10 Depression 115 88 1.91 1.25–2.93 Schizophrenia 8 2 8.04 0.95–68.01 Manic depressive disorder 18 10 2.49 0.81–7.64 PTSD 32 30 2.06 1.04–3.09 Dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis 79 70 1.52 0.93–2.47 Parkinson's 2 2 -- ALS 0 0 -- Other neurodegenerative disease 17 14 2.74 1.00–7.53 NOTE: PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder; ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease)
From page 64...
... " Table 10-16 shows that roughly 10–16 percent of participants reported birth defects among their children born live. The corresponding rate among participant subjects was larger in group D, while the mean number of children born with birth defects showed no statistically significant differences.
From page 65...
... (N = 1,326) Severe headache 201 115 1.73 1.25–2.38 Diarrhea 284 143 1.90 1.43–2.52 Rash/skin ulcer 282 137 2.00 1.51–2.63 Sore throat 309 168 1.58 1.21–2.06 Frequent bladder infections 61 32 1.55 0.84–2.85 Cough 511 323 1.62 1.30–2.01 Fever 150 90 1.42 1.00–2.01 Unexplained hair loss 71 32 1.77 1.00–3.15 Earlobe pain 53 35 1.15 0.65–2.01 Sleepy all the time 321 207 1.52 1.16–1.98 Night sweats 373 253 1.34 1.05–1.70 Chest pain 325 191 1.79 1.38–2.34 Unusual muscle pains 483 286 1.77 1.41–2.21 Shortness of breath 592 414 1.53 1.24–1.89 Trouble sleeping 625 416 1.50 1.22–1.84 Unusual fatigue 444 309 1.42 1.13–1.78 Forgetfulness 561 399 1.71 1.38–2.12 Confusion 214 130 1.71 1.25–2.35 Group B (N = 384)
From page 66...
... (N = 498) Group D 63 50 1.81 1.07–3.07 Severe headache 63 78 1.10 0.69–1.77 Diarrhea 84 58 2.16 1.37–3.42 Rash/skin ulcer 74 58 1.70 1.05–2.78 Sore throat 16 14 1.74 0.67–4.47 Frequent bladder infections 133 132 1.51 1.03–2.22 Cough 36 34 1.28 0.71–2.34 Fever 15 11 3.89 1.22–12.38 Unexplained hair loss 14 13 1.48 0.57–3.87 Earlobe pain 98 73 2.03 1.28–3.23 Sleepy all the time 95 95 1.36 0.89–2.08 Night sweats 82 74 1.61 1.01–2.55 Chest pain 133 110 1.85 1.25–2.75 Unusual muscle pains 169 143 1.81 1.23–2.66 Shortness of breath 172 164 1.70 1.16–2.48 Trouble sleeping 135 116 1.72 1.16–2.54 Unusual fatigue 148 143 1.68 1.15–2.46 Forgetfulness 68 50 2.10 1.23–3.56 Confusion Note: Statistically significant odds ratios in bold.
From page 67...
... TABLE 10-16 Birth Defects Among Those Who Fathered a Child Comparing Participants to Controls, with Adjusted Odds Ratios (ORs) Participants Controls Adjusted OR*


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.