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Appendix A: PTSD Psychological Interventions
Pages 159-164

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From page 159...
... They encourage clients to explore traumatic material in depth, gaining m ­ astery over traumatic memories and taking control of their own lives. This class of therapies includes techniques from various therapeutic ­approaches, including cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic (Friedman, 2003)
From page 160...
... Types of exposure include imaginal exposure, which involves exposure to traumatic event through mental imagery, either memory constructed through client's own narrative or scene presented by therapist based on provided information (Foa et al., 2000) , and in vivo, where a client confronts the actual scene or similar events in life.
From page 161...
... Relaxation training also is an anxiety management technique. It i ­nvolves teaching a client how to create a sense of relaxation, eventually in response to reminders of trauma, through diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and other techniques that induce muscle relaxation (and inhibit anxiety response)
From page 162...
... and is designed to increase coping skills for current situations. SIT may include education, muscle relaxation training, breathing retraining, role playing, covert modeling, guided self-dialogue, and thought stopping (Foa et al., 2000)
From page 163...
... As originally designed, EMDR includes saccadic eye movements (quick, jumping from one point of fixation to another) believed to reprogram brain function so emotional impact of trauma can be resolved (Friedman, 2003)
From page 164...
... . Techniques include health education and psychoeducational techniques, self-care and independent-living skills training, supported housing, family skills training, social skills training, vocational rehabilitation, and case management.

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