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Appendix B: Alternative Energy Resources
Pages 347-352

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From page 347...
... , is located within the United States. Due to differences in kerogen type (compared to western shale) , eastern oil shale requires different processing.
From page 348...
... The USGS has had an oil shale data compilation project in Utah for the last 2 years.  • In the eastern United States, oil shale underlies the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan Basins, predominantly in Devonian age deposits covering hundreds of thousands of acres from Illinois to New York to Alabama, and it is estimated that there are 189 billion barrels of oil equivalent in Eastern oil shale.  Kentucky has the largest outcrop of oil shale in the eastern United States and also has the largest amount of surface and near-surface oil shale.
From page 349...
... Both in situ and surface processes are energy intensive, thus while the recovered resources may satisfy one energy demand for liquid fuels, the net balance is much smaller and is an important consideration, particularly in light of efforts to reduce fossil fuel combustion. Current production methods release significantly more greenhouse gases than conventional crude oil production and refining.
From page 350...
... Well-designed water floods may recover 20 to 40 percent of the OOIP, depending on oil and reservoir characteristics, leaving "residual oil" amounting to perhaps 50 percent of the OOIP. Theoretically, EOR techniques offer prospects for producing up to 100 percent of the residual oil under nearly perfect reservoir conditions; however, practically speaking, the additional recovery is more likely to be similar to the amount of oil recovered during secondary recovery activities.
From page 351...
... Accounting for these, the future recovery potential from domestic undeveloped oil resources by applying EOR technology is 240 billion barrels, boosting potentially recoverable resources to 430 billion barrels. aDoes not include oil shale.
From page 352...
... Thus, it is anticipated that these new liquid fuels manufacturing plants will be a source of low cost CO2 for EOR operations. The United States has limited existing CO2 sources and pipelines currently delivering this strategic EOR gas, and even in these regions, low cost CO2 is in short supply.

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