Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:


Pages 297-332

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 297...
... Appendix A Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Constituents of MUS Waters The purpose of this appendix is to expand on some of the brief descriptions of constituents that may be found in either recharge or discharge waters of managed underground storage (MUS) systems.
From page 298...
... 298 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER tion of dissolved sulfate often creates odorous compounds. Most odorous gases, such as hydrogen sulfide and the sulfur-bearing mercaptans, are formed under anaerobic conditions, so providing adequate dissolved oxygen is the first step toward controlling odors.
From page 299...
... APPENDIX A 299 Specific Conductance Specific conductance is a measure of how well a given water sample conducts an electrical current. It is defined as the "reciprocal of the resistance in ohms measured between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of an aqueous solution at a specified temperature" (Hem, 1985)
From page 300...
... 300 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Nutrients Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for growth of biomass. Their presence in water can stimulate growth of algae and microorganisms.
From page 301...
... APPENDIX A 301 The most prevalent toxicity from use of recycled water for irrigation is from boron. The source of boron is usually household detergents or discharges from industrial plants.
From page 302...
... 302 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER per year per million people, and less than 1 percent of the risk is attributed to radionuclides in drinking water. Consequently, in most water supplies, it is not possible to measure any adverse health effects from radionuclides with certainty.
From page 303...
... APPENDIX A 303 NOM and SMPs has been done for research purposes. Separation techniques used for bulk organic carbon include molecular weight fractionation, size exclusion chromatography and fractionation based on hydrophobicity (Croue et al., 2000)
From page 304...
... 304 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER posed rule of 1 mg/L of TOC for direct injection with reclaimed water and Florida has limit of 3 mg/L of TOC for groundwater recharge with reclaimed water. When TOC concentrations for reclaimed water are set at 1 mg/L or less, the target that concentration is below the TOC concentration of most surface water sources.
From page 305...
... APPENDIX A 305 cipal attenuating processes are biological transformation and sorption. The occurrence of these processes differs depending on compound structure, soil, and biogeochemical conditions.
From page 306...
... 306 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER MICROORGANISMS The microorganisms of concern associated with public health risks in groundwaters and source waters used for MUS may be divided into two major categories; those that are associated with fecal pollution of ground- and surface water and those that may be naturally-occurring. Groundwater has been shown to be a major source associated with waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, because it is often used without treatment.
From page 307...
... APPENDIX A 307 TABLE A-1 Pathogens and Microorganisms of Possible Concern with MUS Systems Relationship to Ground- Occurrence Other Key Microbe Sources water in Water Points Bacteria Cyanobacteria Naturally- Unknown Toxins found Not routinely occurring could be sta- in surface monitored for yet In Surface Wa- ble in MUS waters alone in MUS. ters aquifers with seasonal On the CCL blooms Campylobacter Animal/ bird Associated Aerotolerant Can cause and human with Stable in non- Guillian Barré fecal wastes groundwater disinfected Syndrome outbreaks waters Arcobacter Possibly Unknown Grows at low Emerging human animal and Identified in temperatures pathogen human wastes groundwater with massive contamina tion Helicobacter Human sewage Association Detected by Emerging cause with human PCR in sew- of ulcers and disease and age and cancer; exposure to groundwater on the CCL groundwater Legionella Naturally- Found in Grows along No studies on occurring in groundwater with increased enhancement of aquatic envi- and cause of amoeba and populations un ronment the distribu- heterotrophs der MUS tion system in biofilms seeding a Viruses .
From page 308...
... 308 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Table A-1 Continued Relationship to Ground- Occurrence Other Key Microbe Sources water in Water Points Noroviruses Human Associated Found in sew- World-wide in wastewater with water- age, surface crease of occur borne out- and ground- rence, no culti breaks in water vatable methods groundwaters available. in particular Polyoma Human Feces, urine, Survives in water viruses wastewater and sewage but oral transmis(Cause of Brain sion is uncertain and colorectal cancers and urinary tract disease)
From page 309...
... APPENDIX A 309 studies exist on the ecology and evolution of microbial pathogens in environmental waters in comparison to research investigating their pathogenicity or health impacts. To gain a real understanding of their abundance, distribution, and fate in the environment, more monitoring studies tied to testing of specific hypotheses and application of advanced microbiological tools should be undertaken.
From page 310...
... 310 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER associated with persistent, watery diarrhea and bacteremia (Vandenberg, 2004)
From page 311...
... APPENDIX A 311 groundwater in a national survey was found 8 to 20 percent positive, based on susceptibility of the aquifer (sandy aquifers, horizontal wells) (Hancock et al., 1998)
From page 312...
... 312 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER tion to routine monitoring of coliform bacteria, several alternative monitoring approaches have been suggested to provide a tool box of indicators with various survival, source associations, and transport characteristics. These alternative indicators include Enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and F-specific coliphages.
From page 313...
... APPENDIX A 313 tion of coliphages and enteric viruses may follow similar patterns, depending on the dominant physical, chemical, and/or biological removal mechanisms. In addition, the presence and survival of coliphages is related to bacterial concentrations.
From page 314...
... 314 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER al., 2002)
From page 315...
... APPENDIX A 315 grow and establish themselves in the water environment. These pathogens have commonly caused outbreaks in recreational settings and are of particular concern because many are now resistant to antibiotics.
From page 316...
... 316 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER of bacteria in drinking water, the better maintained the water system is. 3 Legionella zero TT Legionnaire's Disease, Found naturally in a type of pneumonia water; multiplies in heating systems 4 Total Coliforms zero 5.0% Not a health threat in Coliforms are (including fecal itself; it is used to indi- naturally present coliform and E
From page 317...
... APPENDIX A 317 drinking water disinfection Chlorite 0.8 1.0 Anem+ia; infants & young Byproduct of children: nervous system drinking water effects disinfection 6 Haloacetic n/a 0.060 Increased risk of cancer Byproduct of acids (HAA5) drinking water disinfection 7 Total Triha- none 0.10 Liver, kidney or central Byproduct of lomethanes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- nervous system problems; drinking water 6 (TTHMs)
From page 318...
... 318 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER 01/23/06 systems, and may orchards, runoff from have increased risk glass & electronic of getting cancer sproduction wastes Asbestos 7 million 7 MFL Increased risk of Decay of asbestos (fiber >10 mi- fibers developing benign cement in water crometers) per liter intestinal polyps mains; erosion of natural deposits Barium 2 2 Increase in blood Discharge of drilling pressure wastes; discharge from metal refineries; erosion of natural deposits Beryllium 0.004 0.004 Intestinal lesions Discharge from metal refineries and coal burning factories; discharge from elec trical, aerospace, and defense industries Cadmium 0.005 0.005 Kidney damage Corrosion of galva nized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from metal refineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints Chromium 0.1 0.1 Allergic dermatitis Discharge from steel (total)
From page 319...
... APPENDIX A 319 Cyanide (as 0.2 0.2 Nerve damage or Discharge from free cyanide) thyroid problems steel/metal factories; discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories Fluoride 4.0 4.0 Bone disease (pain Water additive which and tenderness of promotes strong the bones)
From page 320...
... 320 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.
From page 321...
... APPENDIX A 321 Benzo(a) pyrene (PAHs)
From page 322...
... 322 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER problems factories p-Dichlorobenzene 0.075 0.075 Anemia; liver, Discharge from kidney or industrial spleen chemical damage; factories changes in blood 1,2-Dichloroethane zero 0.005 Increased risk Discharge from of cancer industrial chemical factories 1,1-Dichloroethylene 0.007 0.007 Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 0.07 0.07 Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories trans-1,2- 0.1 0.1 Liver problems Discharge from Dichloroethylene industrial chemical factories Dichloromethane zero 0.005 Liver prob- Discharge from lems; in- drug and creased risk of chemical cancer factories 1,2-Dichloropropane zero 0.005 Increased risk Discharge from of cancer industrial chemical factories Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 0.4 0.4 Weight loss, Discharge from liver problems, chemical or possible factories reproductive difficulties.
From page 323...
... APPENDIX A 323 Dinoseb 0.007 0.007 Reproductive Runoff from difficulties herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) zero 0.0000000 Reproductive Emissions from 3 difficulties; waste incinera increased risk tion and other of cancer combustion; discharge from chemical factories Diquat 0.02 0.02 Cataracts Runoff from herbicide use Endothall 0.1 0.1 Stomach and Runoff from intestinal prob- herbicide use lems Endrin 0.002 0.002 Liver problems Residue of banned insec ticide 9 Epichlorohydrin zero TT Increased Discharge from cancer risk, industrial and over a chemical long period of factories; an time, stomach impurity of problems some water treatment chemicals Ethylbenzene 0.7 0.7 Liver or kid- Discharge from neys problems petroleum refineries Ethylene dibromide zero 0.00005 Problems with Discharge from liver, stomach, petroleum reproductive refineries system, or kidneys; increased risk of cancer Glyphosate 0.7 0.7 Kidney prob- Runoff from lems; repro- herbicide use ductive difficulties Heptachlor zero 0.0004 Liver damage; Residue of
From page 324...
... 324 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER increased risk banned of cancer termiticide Heptachlor epoxide zero 0.0002 Liver damage; Breakdown of increased risk heptachlor of cancer Hexachlorobenzene zero 0.001 Liver or kidney Discharge from problems; metal refineries reproductive and agricultural difficulties; chemical increased risk factories of cancer Hexachlorocyclo- 0.05 0.05 Kidney or Discharge from pentadiene stomach prob- chemical lems factories Lindane 0.0002 0.0002 Liver or kidney Run problems off/leaching from insecti cide used on cattle, lumber, gardens Methoxychlor 0.04 0.04 Reproductive Run difficulties off/leaching from insecti cide used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock Oxamyl (Vydate) 0.2 0.2 Slight nervous Runoff/leach system effects ing from insecticide used on apples, potatoes, and tomatoes Polychlorinated zero 0.0005 Skin changes; Runoff from biphenyls (PCBs)
From page 325...
... APPENDIX A 325 of cancer Pentachlorophenol zero 0.001 Liver or kidney Discharge from problems; wood preserv increased ing factories cancer risk Picloram 0.5 0.5 Liver problems Herbicide runoff Simazine 0.004 0.004 Problems with Herbicide blood runoff Styrene 0.1 0.1 Liver, kidney, Discharge from or circulatory rubber and system plastic problems factories; leaching from landfills Tetrachloroethylene zero 0.005 Liver Discharge from problems; factories and increased risk dry cleaners of cancer Toluene 1 1 Nervous Discharge from system, petroleum kidney, or liver factories problems Toxaphene zero 0.003 Kidney, liver, Runoff/leach or thyroid ing from insec problems; ticide used on increased risk cotton and of cancer cattle 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 0.05 0.05 Liver problems Residue of banned herbicide 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 0.07 0.07 Changes in Discharge from adrenal glands textile finishing factories 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.20 0.2 Liver, nervous Discharge from system, or metal circulatory degreasing problems sites and other factories
From page 326...
... 326 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 0.003 0.005 Liver, kidney, Discharge from or immune industrial system chemical problems factories Trichloroethylene zero 0.005 Liver prob- Discharge from lems; metal degreas increased risk ing sites and of cancer other factories Vinyl chloride zero 0.002 Increased risk Leaching from of cancer PVC pipes; discharge from plastic factories Xylenes (total) 10 10 Nervous Discharge from system petroleum damage factories; discharge from chemical factories Radionuclides 1 MCL or Sources of MCLG 1 Potential Health Effects Contaminant 2 TT Contaminant in (mg/L)
From page 327...
... APPENDIX A 327 Uranium Zero 30 ug/L Increased risk of cancer, Erosion of natural as of kidney toxicity deposits 12/08/0 3 Notes: 1 Definitions: Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water.
From page 328...
... 328 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER 7 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, there is no MCLG for this contaminant.
From page 329...
... APPENDIX A 329 Diergaardt, S
From page 330...
... 330 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Heberer, T
From page 331...
... APPENDIX A 331 Rolle-Kampczyk, U., J

Key Terms



This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.