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14 On the Problem of Creating Regional International Storage Facilities for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Based on the Russian Example)--Nikolay P. Laverov
Pages 93-98

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From page 93...
... Laverov Russian Academy of Sciences WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO ACCELERATE THE CREATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE FACILITY? Almost 170,000 metric tons of equivalent heavy metal from spent fuel from commercial reactors and more than 60,000 fuel assemblies from research reactors are currently being stored worldwide.
From page 94...
... , where there is a Russian-built surface spent fuel storage facility and an underground liquid waste repository, with construction of a spent fuel reprocessing enterprise planned; and • an underground international spent fuel storage facility on the grounds of a major natural uranium mining enterprise (Krasnokamensk, Siberia)
From page 95...
... International efforts under the patronage of the IAEA to develop optimal regional systems for spent fuel storage seem very much needed. Longstanding relations among countries that store spent fuel and those that supply it must be taken into account, as well as guarantees, controls, systems for managing the storage process, resolution of joint technological questions common to the fuel cycle, and guaranteed safety.
From page 96...
... The concentration of uranium in the water from the ore deposits containing up to 40 percent uranium is practically no different from background concentration levels, totaling 10–8 mol per liter. However, a question arises: Will uranium dioxide irradiated in fuel elements behave in a geological environment similar to natural uraninite, given that the intensity of alpha-radiation on the surface of spent fuel is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of uranium ores?
From page 97...
... Thus, the results of studies of the ore deposits of Oklo support the conclusion that this geological environment is capable of ensuring the safe long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. ON SELECTING A SITE FOR AN INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE FACILITY IN RUSSIA For the majority of countries, selecting a site for the construction of a spent fuel repository is an exceptionally complex problem.
From page 98...
... Under the influence of hydrothermal solutions, which could cause mineral transformations of the uranium dioxide matrix, the uranium will be effectively immobilized by the newly formed U-Si gel. The large volume of data obtained as a result of lengthy systematic studies of the conditions for the placement of an underground storage facility in this region, the presence of highly qualified personnel, and the consent for the most part of the local population argue in favor of Krasnokamensk as an important site for the possible placement of an international spent fuel storage facility.

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