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Human Participants and Animal Subjects in Research
Pages 24-27

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From page 24...
... The Common Rule specifies which types of research fall under its jurisdiction, the provisions for obtaining informed consent, the procedures needed to gain approval of a project, and the training that researchers must undergo to use human participants in research. Federally funded research involving human participants also must be reviewed and approved by independent committees known as Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
From page 25...
... Formal training in bioethics is sometimes needed to analyze the complex moral issues raised by human participation in research, and various bodies, such as the President's Council on Bioethics in the United States, are continuing to study these issues. At a minimum, anyone who engages in research that involves humans must be aware of all relevant regulations and have appropriate training.
From page 26...
... mals, which applies to all animal research supported by the National Institutes of Health, requires institutions "to establish and maintain proper measures to ensure the appropriate care and use of all animals involved in research, research training, and biological testing." The policy requires adherence with both the Animal Welfare Act and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, a document prepared and regularly updated by committees under the National Research Council. Guidance for researchers who use animals recommends that researchers carefully consider the "three R's" of animal testing alternatives: reduction in the numbers of animals used, refinement of techniques and procedures to reduce pain and distress, and replacement of conscious living higher animals with insentient material.
From page 27...
... Also, private organizations like the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care accredit research institutions using existing regulations and the guide as standards.

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