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Appendix C: Glossary
Pages 253-257

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From page 253...
... Climate change: A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods (
From page 254...
... El Niño: A warming of the surface waters of the tropical Pacific that occurs every 3 to 5 years, temporarily affecting weather worldwide. Emerging infection: Either a newly recognized, clinically distinct infectious disease or a known infectious disease whose reported incidence is increasing in a given place or among a specific population.
From page 255...
... . La Niña: Cooler than normal sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean that impact global weather patterns.
From page 256...
... Southern Oscillation: A large-scale atmospheric and hydrospheric fluctuation centered in the equatorial Pacific Ocean; it exhibits a nearly annual pressure anomaly, alternatively high over the Indian Ocean and high over the South Pacific; the variation in pressure is accompanied by variations in wind strengths, ocean currents, sea surface temperatures, and precipitation in the surrounding areas. Transmission: Process by which a pathogen passes from a source of infection to a new host.
From page 257...
... Transmission may be by injection of salivary gland fluid during biting, or by regurgitation or deposition on the skin of feces or other material capable of penetrating the bite wound or an area of trauma from scratching or rubbing. This transmission is by an infected nonvertebrate host and not simple mechanical carriage by a vector or vehicle.

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