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Pages 1-6

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From page 1...
... Lawrence Seaway in 1959 provided a route into the Great Lakes not only for international maritime trade but also for aquatic invasive species (AIS) 1 carried in the ballast water needed by ships to operate safely.
From page 2...
... close the seaway to the "riskiest" component of traffic from an AIS perspective, namely, transoceanic vessels engaged in trade with countries outside of Canada and the United States. Although closing the seaway to transoceanic shipping would reduce substantially the risk of AIS introductions by vessels using the waterway, this action could not, in the committee's judgment, be implemented in a timely fashion.
From page 3...
... The committee recommends, therefore, that access to the Great Lakes through the seaway be restricted to vessels taking protective measures aimed at ensuring that they do not harbor living aquatic organisms. Such measures should form the core of a comprehensive technology-based AIS control program incorporating the following features: • A uniform set of effective and enforceable standards for the Great Lakes; • Monitoring for compliance with the standards, strict enforce ment mechanisms, and remediation options for arriving vessels that do not immediately meet standards for entry; • Surveillance of the Great Lakes ecosystem for early detection of new AIS from any source; • Rapid response capability for containment, control, and possi ble subsequent eradication following the discovery of any new AIS; and • Feedback mechanisms to update and improve the control pro gram over time.
From page 4...
... Transport Canada and the U.S. Coast Guard should ensure that all vessels entering the Great Lakes after operating in coastal areas of eastern North America take protective measures similar to those required for transoceanic vessels, notably ballast water exchange for ballasted vessels and salt water flushing for vessels declaring no ballast on board.2 The United States should follow Canada's lead and take im mediate action to adopt and implement ballast water ex change and performance standards for the Great Lakes that are identical to those specified in the International Maritime Organization's International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments.
From page 5...
... Thus, timely implementation of the committee's recommendations with regard to ballast water management and associated standards could help reduce regulatory uncertainties and the associated barrier to the development of trade-enhancing transportation infrastructure and services. In the committee's judgment, the recommended suite of actions comes closer to achieving the two project criteria than any other options it identified.

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