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Appendix C: Examples of Projects and Initiatives
Pages 97-146

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From page 97...
... Martin Iain Bahl, Erik Heegaard, Nina Steenhard National Centre for Biological Defence, Denmark Summary of Activities at the National Centre for Biological Defence, Denmark The National Centre for Biological Defence (NCBD) coordinates all activities regarding surveillance of biological weapons (BW)
From page 98...
... • Development and testing of assays • Biodefence research (European Union projects and national projects) • Development of a Biosecurity programme for Denmark • International BW work (i.e., EU, AG, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC)
From page 99...
... The OECD has provided a forum for its member countries to engage in a dialogue of international cooperation with a view to produce best practice that helps put in place biosecurity measures for Biological Resource Centres (BRCs) , which are repositories and providers of high quality biological materials required for R&D and production in various areas of biotechnology.
From page 100...
... She is a member of the UK's Royal Academy of Engineering working party on synthetic biology, and she is also part of two synthetic biology research networks, which bring together natural and social scientists across the United Kingdom. Calvert's areas of interest in synthetic biology are: • the relationship between systems biology and synthetic biology • the relationship between biology and engineering in synthetic biology • the treatment of complexity and its necessity for living systems • modularity and open source in synthetic biology • understandings of "nature" in synthetic biology • the role of social scientists in synthetic biology Publication: O'Malley, M., A
From page 101...
... This statement identified a series of agreed actions that the three organizations have implemented to raise awareness and to help ensure that any risks of misuse associated with research proposals are considered at the grant application stage. We have introduced a standard question on application forms, and ask both our expert referees and our funding committees to consider any risks of misuse associated with the proposals they review.
From page 102...
... Current projects include: • Policy study on strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention; • Research and dissemination of international and national policies on biological non-proliferation and export control; • Impact of bioterrorism on bio-arms control and biosecurity; • Training and education on biosecurity and dual use issues of biotechnology. The project aims to improve awareness of officials, scientists, students and other people from government; medical institutions; research institutions; universities; and industry.
From page 103...
... Ottorino Cosivi������������������������� and Emmanuelle Tuerlings Biorisk Reduction for Dangerous Pathogens Team, Department of Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, ������������������������������� World Health Organization (WHO) Life Science Research and Development for Global Health Security The overall goal of the project is to raise awareness and provide information and guidance to WHO Member States on the possible options for risk management to address dual use life science R&D.
From page 104...
... In A Web of Prevention: The Life Sciences, Biological Weapons and the Future Governance of Research, B Rappert and C
From page 105...
... The "Web of Prevention" -- A Call for Synergy of Action to Prevent Poisoning and Deliberate Spread of Infectious Disease The International Committee of the Red Cross launched a Public Appeal in September 2002 on "Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity." The Appeal carried three messages: first, it drew attention to potential risks brought by advances in life sciences and biotechnology; second, it underscored the legal rules -- both national and international -- which might apply to poisoning and deliberate spread of infectious disease; and third, it identified responsibilities of both governments and the scientific community to ensure that such advances are used only for the benefit of humanity.
From page 106...
... This means that all preventive measures work to enhance each other that is, there is a synergy of action or "Web of Prevention." This is a base concept of the ICRC's initiative. The Web of Prevention makes obvious the links between different agencies working on issues related to biological weapons or chemical weapons, for example, police, scientists, nongovernmental organizations and diplomats.
From page 107...
... With Brian Rappert he is working on awareness raising and education for life scientists using the interactive seminar that Brian designed. Neil Davison The Royal Society, United Kingdom The Royal Society continues to engage on dual use and biosecurity issues through its membership of the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP)
From page 108...
... To deal with this problem, communities will have to work with one another, including some with which they may be quite unfamiliar, and which may have very different operating procedures, cultures, priorities, and contexts for comparison. Despite the requirement to work together, no integrated biological risk management governance structure currently exists that is at once comprehensive, international, and multisectoral.
From page 109...
... The big challenge is to incorporate biosecurity concerns into this system, in particular, to upgrade measures to prevent the leakage of dangerous organisms, information and technologies to terror organizations. To this end the Israel National Security Council and the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities initiated a national project and formed a special Steering Committee on Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (COBRAT)
From page 110...
... • Preparation of suggestions for programs to raise awareness, consciousness and education in academia.
From page 111...
... With the objective to develop and institute appropriate governance structure for R&D of S&T at the Japanese universities and research institutions, the RISTEX project team has conducted the following activities: • Raising awareness among the relevant stakeholders about the importance of the problems of the potential misuse of science and technology, through holding seminars bringing together relevant stakeholders and briefing to officials, experts and political authorities as well as members of the Science Council of Japan. • Collaborating with the Japanese government in order to develop appropriate measures and policy, including – Assisting the development of a guideline for universities and research institutions over the management of R&D activities involving sensitive technologies, within the study group of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry; – Assisting the efforts to develop appropriate measures for bio­ security at universities and research institutions by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology; – Assisting the efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to prepare for international cooperation for biosecurity, including the BWC Expert group meetings, the Japan-U.S.-Australia Trilateral Conference's Committee on Counter-Bioterrorism and associated efforts to support capacity building for counter-bioterrorism among ASEAN countries;
From page 112...
... The International Biological Threat Reduction program advances international threat reduction goals by promoting safe, secure, and responsible use of dangerous biological agents across the globe. Laboratory Biosafety, Biosecurity, and Biocontainment • Working with domestic and international bioscience facilities and government agencies to conduct risk, threat, and vulnerability assessments.
From page 113...
... and international scientists, laboratory managers, and policy makers on the importance of biosecurity, biosafety, biocontainment, and infectious disease diagnostics and control. • Hosting laboratory biosafety, biosecurity, and biocontainment symposia worldwide, at the request of the international community.
From page 114...
... In conclusion, the conference contributed significantly to the dissemination of knowledge of the dual use dilemma and emphasized the need to further discuss and implement methods to safeguard research with such potential. Chandré Gould Institute for Security Studies, South Africa Chandré Gould is a senior researcher in the Crime and Justice Programme of the Institute for Security Studies, an African policy research institute.
From page 115...
... Malcolm Dando to organize and present interactive seminars on dual use issues to scientists in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. Elisa Harris Center for International and Security Studies, University of Maryland, United States Controlling Dangerous Pathogens Project Dual use biotechnology research poses global challenges that cannot be managed effectively either by traditional arms control or by voluntary self-governance.
From page 116...
... Eighty years later the advent of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) changed the rules.
From page 117...
... The following projects are currently carried out by the Research Group for Biological Arms Control: • Economic, social and legal aspects of biodefence research. • Role of non-state actors in promoting nonproliferation and arms control against biological weapons.
From page 118...
... • New developments in aerosolization technology and implications for biological arms control. Ferenc Jordán Collegium Budapest, Institute for Advanced Study and Animal Ecology Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary The Ecology of Security Ecology is the science of interactions and relationships.
From page 119...
... 2008a. Network analysis: Linking parts to the whole in nature and society.
From page 120...
... The database is intended to serve as a platform for receiving detailed technical information on biological incidents worldwide in order to build state capacity to prevent and combat bioterrorism.  At present no international comprehensive data resource exists in this area, where data are directly provided by Member States and by this considered "quality-controlled." The biological incident database is currently being developed, together with input from interested Member States and relevant international organizations.
From page 121...
... Lorna Miller DefenCe Science and Technology Laboratory, United Kingdom Lorna Miller is Senior Biological Advisor/Non-Proliferation at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, United Kingdom, providing scientific and technical advice on biological arms control and non-proliferation issues to policy makers and implementers. This includes the role of scientific and technical advisor to the UK delegation to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and support to UK
From page 122...
... Her current work involves preparation for UK contributions to the 2008 Meeting of Experts topics related to biosafety and biosecurity and to oversight, education, awareness raising and codes of conduct to prevent misuse of advances in bioscience and biotechnology research. She is also involved in providing and coordinating technical support to UK initiatives to provide assistance to other countries in meeting arms control and non-proliferation objectives, particularly with regard to implementation of the BWC; biosafety and biosecurity standards and training; and capacity building in infectious disease control.
From page 123...
... This project was designed to bring together leading scientific and policy experts in Africa at a workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, March 11-12, 2008, to discuss biosafety and biosecurity and to build capacity within research institutions in East Africa to devise and undertake laboratory biosafety and biosecurity oversight review procedures. Beyond the workshop, the project will provide an opportunity to disseminate emerging educational materials and tools and raise the profile of Africa and African countries in international biosecurity deliberations.
From page 124...
... The NSABB consists of 25 nongovernment voting members with a broad range of expertise, including molecular biology, microbiology, infectious diseases, biosafety, public health, veterinary medicine, plant health, national security, biodefense, law enforcement, scientific publishing, and related fields. Representatives from 15 federal agencies and departments are nonvoting members.
From page 125...
... government for consideration during the policy development process: "Proposed Framework for the Oversight of Dual Use Life Sciences Research: Strategies for Minimizing the Potential Misuse of Research Information" and "Addressing Biosecurity Concerns Related to the Synthesis of Select Agents." In fulfillment of its charge to recommend strategies for fostering international dialogue on dual use research issues, the NSABB has hosted two International Roundtables, the first co-sponsored by the U.S. government and the World Health Organization.
From page 126...
... This constellation of factors raises the question as to whether the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, which has no treaty organization and does not contain adequate measures for assuring compliance, is running into the danger of being completely overwhelmed by scientific and technological advances in the future in the sense that States will be reluctant to devote appropriate attention to these developments in all their complexity. Under Article IV of the BWC States Parties have an obligation to take all "necessary measures" not only to "prohibit" but also to "prevent" the malign misuse of biological materials.
From page 127...
... . His main responsibility is to coordinate all ASSAf international activities such as to maintain the bilateral and multilateral engagements with other international science academies and organizations such as the InterAcademy Medical Panel, IAP, Network of African Science Academies, African Academy of Sciences, G8 + 5, IBSA (India/Brazil/South Africa)
From page 128...
... to minimize, if not totally avoid, the confusion and panic that prevails in times of natural disasters and epidemic outbreaks that pose a serious risk to health security, the following international organizations need to be set up: 1. An international organization with units in different countries to (a)
From page 129...
... on the sources of threats to health security and protocols to mitigate threats; • Convene discussions among the appropriate agencies making them aware of current developments and on the use of investigational products in mass-casualty situations and on acceptable proof of efficacy for products where clinical trials are not ethical or are otherwise impossible; • Develop incentives for both public and private hospitals to be receiving hospitals, to stockpile antidotes and selected antitoxins and make them available to the first responders, by changing laws if needed; • To purchase appropriate personal protective equipment and expandable decontamination facilities and train emergency department personnel in their use; • Provide for state and central training initiatives with a programme to incorporate existing information on threats to health security and their preventive and treatment methods into the manuals and reference libraries of first responders, emergency departments and biotoxin control centers; and • Intensify Public Health Service efforts to organize and equip Urban Medical Response Teams and Community Response Teams, in high-risk cities and other locations, throughout the country. These measures would enhance the general ability of governments, public health authorities and the communities, to cope with mass-casualty events.
From page 130...
... The work has been undertaken in collaboration with a number of individuals: Animesh Roul, Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict, India; Peter Edopu and Chandré Gould of the Institute for Security ­ Studies, South Afrcia; David Friedman at the Institute for National Security ­Studies, Israel; Katsuhisa Furukawa, Rui Kotani, and Yu Sasaki at the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society in the Japan Science and Technology Agency; Heide Hackmann, Laura van Veenendaal, and Rudie Trienes of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences; Mari Linnapuomi of the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs; ­Serhiy Komisarenko of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Silvia Cucovaz of the Argentinean National Intelligence School; Paula Austin of Sandia National Laboratories, United States; Christian Enemark of the Centre for International Security Studies at the University of Sydney, Australia; and Thomas Egwang of Med Biotech Laboratories and the Ugandan National Academy of Sciences.  Through this work we are developing a novel research method for engaging with practicing scientists about emerging areas of societal discussion. We have also produced interactive educational material, in part, in collaboration with Marie Chevrier (University of Texas at Dallas)
From page 131...
... Animesh Roul Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict, India Animesh Roul is involved as India coordinator in a Sloan Foundation funded "biosecurity" project under Professors Brian Rappert and Malcolm Dando, referenced above. In India, he is also involved in issues relating to bioterrorism and emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and their sociological impact. Lajos Rózsa The Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary A Drug Weapon Research Program (1962-1972)
From page 132...
... As president-elect of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) and chair of the IUMS Public Policy Committee he
From page 133...
... New emerging and reemerging infectious diseases have taken at the same time a significant toll on many countries and populations. Biotechnology and environmental science issues have also had significant impact.
From page 134...
... The Global Health and Security Initiative, a project of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) , is working around the world to address the complex and multifaceted risks posed by biological agents.
From page 135...
... The GHSI will undertake and support projects that: • Address significant high-risk situations; • Generate additional funding and leverage action for threat reduction; and • Promote the core objectives of the Global Health and Security Initiative through sustained engagement. Projects Examples of projects currently under way to achieve the GHSI mission include: • Support for the International Council for the Life Sciences, which is the primary vehicle for GHSI in establishing and empowering standing national and regional networks for promoting best practices, standards and training in biosafety and security.
From page 136...
... Ralf Trapp Independent consultant Ralph Trapp is an independent consultant on disarmament of chemical and biological weapons. He advises the OPCW on the preparation of the Second CWC Review Conference and acts as legal coordinator of the European Union (EU)
From page 137...
... The Dutch Biosecurity Code of Conduct, published in October 2007, is accompanied by an explanatory memorandum and a background review, which were also submitted to the working group and the focus group for comment. The aim of this code of conduct is to prevent life sciences research or its application from directly or indirectly contributing to the development, production or stockpiling of biological weapons, as described in the BWC, or to any other misuse of biological agents and toxins.
From page 138...
... FASEB has worked to raise awareness of dual use research issues through periodic publications in society newsletters, as well as our own electronic newsletter. Related Activities: We have surveyed the FASEB leadership and membership about dual use research issues and have found very low levels of awareness.
From page 139...
... The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology -- founded in 1955 -- unites biochemists and molecular biologists in 66 countries that belong to the Union as Adhering or Associate Adhering Bodies, representing biochemical societies, national research councils, or academies of sciences. The IUBMB is devoted to promoting research and
From page 140...
... These Congresses are major international meetings where current research in all fields of biochemistry and molecular biology is considered. Thousands of individual research projects are presented in poster sessions and leading investigators from many nations survey their fields and describe their own research in symposia and plenary lectures.
From page 141...
... The IUBMB is one of 29 Scientific Unions affiliated with the International Council of Science, an umbrella organization for scientists worldwide. ICSU was created in 1931 to encourage international scientific activity, to affirm the rights of scientists without regard to race, religion, political philosophy, ethnic origin, sex or language to join in international scientific affairs for the benefit of mankind.
From page 142...
... In particular, the IUMS strives to promote ethical conduct of research and training in the areas of biosecurity and biosafety so as to prevent use of microorganisms as biological weapons and therefore to protect the public's health and to promote world peace. IUMS seeks that all its member societies adopt or develop a Code of Ethics to prevent misuse of scientific knowledge and resources.
From page 143...
... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry serves to advance the worldwide aspects of the chemical sciences and to contribute to the application of chemistry in the service of humankind. As a scientific, international, nongovernmental and objective body, IUPAC can address many global issues involving the chemical sciences.
From page 144...
... • The Biological Threats Panel brings together National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and non-CISAC experts to address the scientific and technical dimensions of biological weapons, bioterrorism, issues related to successful implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, biosecurity, and other contemporary challenges related to rapid growth in biotechnology.
From page 145...
... • The Board on International Scientific Organizations (BISO) examines issues related to the conduct of science, evaluates opportunities for international collaboration in scientific research, and strengthens U.S.


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