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3 Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research
Pages 45-70

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From page 45...
... Because random source animals and specifically random source animals from pounds and shelters are the driving force for Congressional and public concern, and are the animals of interest to NIH, the Committee was compelled to discuss the specific attributes, both desirable and undesirable, of random source animals in this report. Dogs and cats, regardless of source, have been used in American biomedical research for over a century, and random source dogs and cats have contributed to advances in both human and animal health.
From page 46...
... . In addition to concern about the use of pound animals in research, the CVMBS policy also addresses the quality of care provided to the animals used by the College: "In selecting sources from which to purchase animals to be used in research and teaching, the CVMBS strives to patronize only those suppliers who maintain the highest standards of animal care.
From page 47...
... The professional and scientific communities view the issue somewhat differently. The American Veterinary Medical Association, in its November 2007 official policy position statement, "believes there is ample justification for prudent and humane use of random source dogs and cats in research, testing and education."2 The American Physiological Society (APS)
From page 48...
... The Committee was not tasked with comparing attributes of random source animals to those of purpose-bred animals nor with identifying attributes unique to random source or Class B dogs and cats. The supposedly greater tractability of random source dogs and cats is sometimes cited as an advantage for their use.
From page 49...
... RANDOM SOuRCE DOgS: ANATOMIC AND PHySIOLOgIC ATTRIBuTES Scientific investigation may require the use of older, larger, or genetically diverse dogs, or dogs with naturally occurring disease, any of which may be available as random source animals. In contrast, purpose-bred dogs, such as those supplied by Class A dealers, tend to be young and healthy; they include beagles, "mini-mongrels," and hounds weighing 23-27 kg (50-60 pounds)
From page 50...
... Data presented on behalf of the American Physiological Society indicated that random source animals exhibited a greater increase in coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen consumption (Tune et al. 2000; personal communication, Bill Yates, to Committee, October 2008)
From page 51...
... Random source dogs may have age-related chronic or persistent disease conditions such as congestive heart failure, arthritis, allergy, dementia, and neoplastic conditions that may make them desirable for investigations into similar human conditions. For example, canine osteosarcoma has a predictable metastatic rate and pattern that make it attractive for studies of antimetastatic approaches.
From page 52...
... . More recently, random source animals have been used in NIH-funded studies of the ocular system, dementia, and cardiac function (Anyukhovsky et al.
From page 53...
... . Naturally Occurring Infectious Diseases Random source dogs exposed to outdoor environments and various vectors that may carry disease can be effective models of naturally occurring infectious diseases.
From page 54...
... , "Dose confirmation studies should be conducted using naturally or artificially infected animals; however, at least one study should be conducted in naturally infected animals for each parasite claimed on the label." Therefore, although studies on naturally infected dogs do not typically apply to NIH-funded research, random source animals may be important for other types of research. Spontaneously Occurring Animal Models of Human Disease The genetically diverse pet population has been the source of unique animal models that are not available from vendors of purpose-bred animals; for example, diseases have been identified in a mixed population of pet animals in Germany (Neumann and Bilzer 2005)
From page 55...
... . These valuable models are examples of the desirability or necessity of access to random source animals as genetically diverse control animals, and of as yet undetermined animal models that may result from naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms, epigenetic occurrences, or other genetic alterations (personal communication, Stephen O'Brien to the Committee, January 2009)
From page 56...
... For all these reasons, random source animals naturally infected with FIV represent a critical resource for understanding FIV, its sequelae, and its transmission between hosts. Feline Interstitial Cystitis Human interstitial cystitis, a serious bladder disorder characterized by pain, urinary frequency, and nocturnal urination (Roppolo et al.
From page 57...
... Principle III states, in part, "The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results." Research involving random source animals may
From page 58...
... In particular, because random source animals have unknown health and care histories, potential health and animal welfare problems may be associated with their use, as discussed below. Not all IACUCs may have the collective experience to conduct a thorough risk-benefit analysis of the ramifications of using random source animals at their institution, so the use of random source animals requires teamwork, perhaps more so than in research involving purpose-bred animals whose health and care histories are known.
From page 59...
... DELETERIOuS INFECTIOuS DISEASE ISSuES Random source animals may be obtained from multiple sources, and the mingling of these animals may contribute to the spread of infectious disease. For example, 20 percent of dogs and 61 percent of cats acquired by Class B dealers come from shelters and pounds (USDA data submitted to the Committee, January 2009)
From page 60...
... ZOONOTIC DISEASE HAZARDS AMONg RANDOM SOuRCE ANIMALS Some infectious disease agents associated with dogs and cats in the general pet population, and therefore among some random source animals,
From page 61...
... As discussed earlier, the use of random source animals for the study of naturally occurring infectious disease may be desirable, but in the other situations intercurrent infections may be deleterious to research. These considerations are generally taken into account by the individual investigator in concert with veterinary professionals at the research institution.
From page 62...
... . Most animal welfare experts therefore advocate multiple measures of aspects that are likely to reflect an animal's welfare (e.g., behavioral responses, physiological indicators, immune function)
From page 63...
... . Because some random source dogs and cats are former pets or strays and therefore not used to prolonged cage confinement, it is reasonable to infer that they may have more difficulty adjusting to laboratory conditions than purposebred animals (see British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation et al.
From page 64...
... Physiology and Behavior 92:375-397. British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement.
From page 65...
... 2006. Animal models used for the evaluation of antiretroviral therapies.
From page 66...
... Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science.
From page 67...
... 1995. Farm Animal Welfare: Social, Bioethical and Research Issues.
From page 68...
... 2009. Gene therapy in large animal models of human cardiovascular genetic disease.
From page 69...
... 2009. Gene therapy in large animal models of human genetic diseases.


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