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2 The Environment for Science and Engineering
Pages 5-10

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From page 5...
... The panel was chaired by Francisco Ayala, a member of the NAS and of the project's advisory committee, and University Professor and Donald Bien Professor of Biological Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at University of California, Irvine. The speakers were Joseph Helble, dean, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth ­ College; D ­ eborah Johnson, chair, Department of Science, Technology and S ­ ociety, University of Virginia, Charlottesville; Michael Mumford, professor, Psychology Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman; and Wendy Williams, director, Research Education, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
From page 6...
... Program leaders must recognize that new technologies promote globalization and change faculty-student interactions. In discussions throughout the meeting, some workshop participants noted that increasing pressures for tenure and increasing competition for grants have led to a variety of problems, including instances of competitive mentoring -- the same project being assigned to more than one graduate student, only one of whom receives credit for the work.
From page 7...
... Many pointed out past efforts by leaders in scientific and engineering fields, as well as leaders of professional societies and academic organizations, to strengthen codes, issue reports, cooperate in government efforts to devise and implement policies, and initiate new educational activities. These responses are reflected, as Deborah ­Johnson of the University of Virginia said in her remarks, not only in ABET  criteria requiring student competencies in ethics and an understanding of the social context of engineering, but also in new NSF requirements that proposals for research projects must include a description of their societal relevance (NSF evaluation criterion 2)
From page 8...
... Overall, the workshop participants indicated that ethics mentoring and education should include interactions between scientists and engineers and the larger environment in which they work, and should include discussions of how the environment affects, and sometimes changes, research and professional practices. As an example of these ­interactions, Mark Frankel, AAAS, noted how conflicts of interest can pose challenges to issues of authorship.
From page 9...
... in raising the visibility of these issues. Some discussants pointed out that research on the interactions between science and engineering and the larger social environment can not only help to identify ethical considerations relevant to conducting research; but it can also identify other aspects of professional conduct that can influence whether junior scientists and engineers continue in career paths that include research and teaching or decide to pursue other career goals.

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