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Appendix C: The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Calcification in Calcifying Algae, Corals,and Carbonate-dominated Systems
Pages 171-182

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From page 171...
... This table lists only those studies published through 2009 that used realistic carbonate chemistry manipulations; i.e., those that were consistent with projected changes in the carbonate chemistry of sea water due to natural forcing. Note that pCO2 is reported both in units of parts per million (ppm)
From page 172...
... Results: Under high CO2 conditions, CCA recruitment rate decreased by 78% and percentage cover decreased 92% relative to ambient; noncalcifying algae percent cover increased by 52% relative to ambient. Rhodoliths of Manipulation: Acid addition Jokiel et al., mixed crustose Duration: 9 months 2008 coralline algae Design: Outdoor continuousflow including mesocosms: control at ambient reef pCO2 Lithophyllum (average 380 ppm)
From page 173...
... Results: In field, coralline algal cover was highly correlated with pH, decreasing rapidly below pH = 7.8 and absent at pH = 7.0; in lab experiment, coralline algae were completely dissolved after two weeks at a pH of 7.0, whereas control samples showed no discernable change. Rhodoliths of Manipulation: Both acid/base addition and Semesi et al., Hydrolithon sp.
From page 174...
... The dissolution of dead algal thalli at elevated pCO2 was 24x higher than under ambient pCO2. Corallinasessilis Manipulation: Bubbled CO2 Gao and Zheng, Duration: 30 days 2009 Design: Controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the interactive effects of pCO2 and UV radiation on growth, photosynthesis, and calcification.
From page 175...
... Porites compressa Manipulation: Acid addition Marubini et al., Duration: 10 weeks 2001 Design: Controlled laboratory experiments: measured calcification at pCO2 = 199 and 448 atm, at 3 light levels. In Biosphere 2 coral mesocosm: measured calcification at pCO2 = 186, 336, and 641 atm.
From page 176...
... Acropora verweyi Manipulation: Acid/base addition Marubini et al., Galaxea Duration: 8 days 2003 fascicularis Design: 2 pCO2 values (407416 and Pavona cactus 857882 atm) , 26.5C Turbinaria Results: calcification rate in all 4 species reniformis decreased 1318% Poritescompressa+ Manipulation: acid/base addition Langdon and Montiporacapitata Duration: 1.5 hours Atkinson, 2005 Design: Corals placed in flumes, multiple summer experiments at pCO2 = 460 and 789 atm; multiple winter experiments at pCO2 = 391, 526, and 781 atm; additional experiments included additions of PO4 and NH4.
From page 177...
... , and 2.2 (low) ; constant temperature at 25C Results: Lateral skeletal extension in larvae was positively correlated with saturation state (P=0.007)
From page 178...
... Madracismirabilis Manipulation: Acid/base addition and Jury et al., 2009 bubbled CO2 Duration: 2 hour incubations following 3hour acclimation period Design: Separation of effects of different carbonate chemistry parameters by manipulating chemistry to reflect 6 combinations of normal, low and very low pH, with normal low and very low [CO32] ; temperature maintained at 28C Results: For pH/[CO32]
From page 179...
... Duration: 24 hours 2009 Design: Onboard incubations of deep water corals at ambient pH, ambient pH 0.15 units, and ambient pH 0.3 units. Calcification rates measured using 45Ca labeling.
From page 180...
... for 4 weeks; temperature maintained at 26C Results: Daytime community calcification was reduced by 12% between low and high treatments. Molokai Reef Manipulation: Natural alkalinity drawdown Yates and System by organisms Halley, 2006 Duration: Several days Design: Large benthic chambers placed on reef bed; in situ carbonate chemistry, salinity, temperature, and net calcification/dissolution measured continuously.
From page 181...
... They are included here for completeness and because they provide insights into calcification mechanisms, but the results should not be strictly interpreted as a response to ocean acidification.


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