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Appendix D: Summary of Research Recommendations from Community-based References
Pages 183-188

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From page 183...
... The working group identi fied the following priority research areas: · Identification of species, functional groups, and ecosystems that are most sensitive ocean acidification and the rate at which organisms can adapt to the changes · Interaction of increased CO2 in surface oceans with other factors such as temperature, carbon cycle, sediment processes, and the balance of reef accretion and erosion
From page 184...
... · Develop protocols for the various methodologies used in seawater chemistry and calcification measurements · Determine the calcification response to elevated CO2 in benthic and planktonic calcifiers · Physiological research to discriminate the various mechanisms of calcification within calcifying groups, to better understand the crosstaxa range of responses to changing seawater chemistry · Experimental studies to determine the interactive effects of multiple variables that affect calcification and dissolution in organisms (saturation state, light, temperature, nutrients) · Combining laboratory experiments with field studies to establish clear links between laboratory experiments and the natural environment · Longterm monitoring of coral reef response to ocean acidification, and better accounting of calcium carbonate budgets · Monitoring of in situ calcification and dissolution in organisms · Incorporating ecological questions into observations and experiments; e.g., effects on organism survivorship and ecology, ecosystem functioning, etc.
From page 185...
... , particulate organic carbon (POC) , and physiological stress markers · Standardize protocols for manipulation and measurement of sea water chemistry in experiments and for calcification and other rate measurements · Expand existing ocean CO2 system monitoring to include new moni toring sites/surveys in openocean and coastal regions, including sites considered vulnerable to ocean acidification, and sites that can be lever aged for field studies · Establish new monitoring sites/surveys in openocean and coastal regions, including sites of particular interest such as the Bering Sea · Progressively build capacity and initiate planning for mesocosm and CO2perturbation experiments in the field · Build shared facilities to conduct wellcontrolled CO2manipulation experiments · Perform global data/model synthesis to predict and quantify altera tions in the ocean CO2 system due to changes in marine calcification · Develop regional biogeochemical models and conduct model/data intercomparison analyses · Establish international collaborations to create a global network of CO2 system observations and field studies relevant to ocean acidification · Ensure that the research is designed to provide results that are useful for policy and decision making · Initiate specific activities for education, training, and outreach
From page 186...
... , and other indicators of impacts on organisms and ecosystems; · Maintain, enhance, and extend existing longterm time series that are relevant for ocean acidification; establish new monitoring sites and repeat surveys in key areas that are likely to be vulnerable to ocean acidification; · Develop relaxed carbon measurement methods and appropriate instrumentation that are cheaper and easier, if possible, for highvariability areas that may not need the highest measurement precision; · Establish a highquality ocean carbon measurement service for those unable to develop their own measurement capabilities; · Establish international collaborations to create a data management and synthesis program for new ocean acidification data as well as data mining and archival for relevant historical data sets; · Work on developing an ocean acidification index (e.g., a CaCO3 satu ration index based on a standard carbonate material) ; · Initiate specific activities for education, training, and outreach.
From page 187...
... Scalingfromorganismtoecosystems · Determine which ecosystems are at the greatest risk from ocean acidi fication and which of these are most important · Determine ecological tipping points that can be defined in terms of pH or carbonate ion concentration · Determine which physiological processes are most important to the scaling issue · Determine how impacts of ocean acidification scale from life stages and individuals to populations, ecosystems and biodiversity; assess bio logical interactions and fluxes across trophic levels · Determine impacts of ocean acidification on fisheries, food produc tion, and other ecosystem services; Increase integrated research involving physiologists, ecologists and fisheries scientists to determine food web responses · Investigate how ecosystemecosystem linkages will be affected by ocean acidification (including pelagicbenthic linkages) · Investigate the potential for behavioral adaptation (e.g., migration and avoidance)
From page 188...
... The goal of the workshop was to assess the consequences of higher CO2 and lower pH for marine microbe and to define highpriority research questions. The report identifies ten important questions related to the effects of acidification on marine microbes, and attempts to indicate urgency and the likely scale of investment that will be required.

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