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5 Overall Assessment
Pages 135-154

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From page 135...
... An example of this is the difficulty in arriving simultaneously at the emergence of the affordable, consumer-friendly fuel cell vehicles and the emergence of a widespread network of hydrogen refueling stations offering affordable hydrogen fuel. Even though the need for, as well as the difficulty in achieving, this simultaneous emergence has been well known from the beginning of FreedomCAR, most efforts were appropriately focused on advancing specific technologies.
From page 136...
... advanced combustion and emissions control Higher efficiency and reduced emissions as compared to those associated with current internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles will be very important to the success of biofuels, advanced hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)
From page 137...
... , the Partnership has focused on electrochemical storage -- primarily batteries and to a lesser extent ultracapacitors. Batteries can serve as primary energy sources onboard the vehicles as well as being a means of recovering kinetic energy, unlike some of the other energy storage technologies that serve better as short-term power devices.
From page 138...
... All of these vehicles are completely or partially electrically driven. Therefore, the performance and costs of components such as electric drive motors and power electronics are major factors for a range of advanced vehicles.
From page 139...
... -- Low-loss soft magnetic materials. Bulk amorphous alloy compositions were identified as well as a kilogram-scale production by gas atomiza tion.
From page 140...
... . • The development of improved non-invasive methods for visualizing water distribution inside fuel cells.1 Technical barriers that still remain include the following: • For the fuel cell stack the technical barriers are the membrane and elec trode life and cost.
From page 141...
... onboard hydrogen storage Onboard hydrogen storage is a key enabler for fuel-cell-powered vehicles. A specific goal of the program is a vehicle driving range of greater than 300 miles between refuelings while simultaneously meeting vehicle packaging, cost, and performance requirements as well as those related to life-cycle issues, energy efficiencies, and safety with consideration of the possible environmental impact of implementing various hydrogen storage technologies.
From page 142...
... • Overall progress in system capacity is reported to have increased 50 percent since 2007. Barriers remain formidable for onboard hydrogen storage.
From page 143...
... Fuel infrastructure Technologies The production, distribution, and delivery of affordable hydrogen is obviously essential if hydrogen is to become a widespread fuel available for refueling millions of fuel cells or other hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Even though relatively
From page 144...
... • A study on the feasibility of using glass fiber composite tanks to deliver cold hydrogen gas to refueling stations was completed. • National and regional workshops involving hydrogen fuel station devel opers along with code officials were convened.
From page 145...
... The stated reasons for this were that in order to achieve commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, four major breakthroughs were required: namely, the sustainable production of hydrogen, effective distribution, onboard storage, and robust, reliable, low-cost fuel cells.
From page 146...
... Although the committee believes that a higher proportion of the funding could very justifiably be devoted to hydrogen and fuel cell activities, the nearer-term projects to which the majority of funding is now allocated are nevertheless well worthwhile, and much of that activity, such as improved batteries, more efficient electrical components, and lighter-weight materials, would also potentially benefit fuel cell vehicles in the future. The DOE budget request for FY 2011 was submitted to Congress in February 2010.
From page 147...
... This expenditure is entirely separate from FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership funding, but such initiatives as $1.5 billion for lithium-ion battery manufacture, $500 million for electric-drive component manufacturing, and $400 million for transportation electrification are clearly relevant to advanced development activities within the Partnership. The large ARRA expenditures
From page 148...
...  FiGUre 5-1 Distribution of funding from the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program for FY 2009. SOURCE: Provided to the committee by DOE, April 23, 2010.
From page 149...
... The total funds available for these ARPA-E projects are $400 million, drawn from the ARRA.3 Although many of the recipients of the ARPA-E funding are also participants in the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, and staff from the two DOE program offices responsible for the Partnership assisted in the review of relevant ARPA-E proposals, these activities are not directly within the purview of Partnership leadership or this committee. However, they represent a substantial commitment of public funds to R&D and to the commercialization of technologies of major interest to the Partnership.
From page 150...
... 0 FiGUre 5-2 Distribution of funding from the Vehicle Technologies Program for FY 2009. SOURCE: Provided to the committee by DOE, April 23, 2010.
From page 151...
... a FY 2011 Budget Structure ($000) Vehicle Technologies Batteries and Electric Drive Technologyc 120,637 0, Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testingd 44,328 , Advanced Combustion Engine R&D 57,600 ,00 Materials Technology 50,723 , Fuels Technologies 11,000 ,00 Outreach, Deployment, and Analysise 41,014 ,00 Vehicle Technologies Program Total 262,265 ,0 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Fuel Cell Systems R&Df 67,000 67,000 Hydrogen Fuels R&Dg 40,000 40,000 Systems Analysis 5,000 5,000 Market Transformationh 9,000 9,000 Manufacturing R&D 5,000 5,000 Technology Validation 11,000 11,000 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Total 137,000 137,000 a All numbers in the Request column include SBIR/STTR.
From page 152...
... The DOE tentatively identified approximately $40 million of congressionally directed projects as part of the Fuel Cell Technologies or Vehicle Technologies Programs. However, Congress also appropriated additional funds specifically to support the earmarks and, as a result, the DOE-managed Partnership funding was not affected.
From page 153...
... Indeed in virtually every area being pursued within the program, projected costs continue to be major issues. From an organizational standpoint, the committee believes that the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership government/industry collaboration is working well and that such precompetitive collaborations should be continued.
From page 154...
... Presentation to the Com mittee on Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, Phase 3, April 27, Washington, D.C.


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