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3 Vehicle Subsystems
Pages 57-114

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From page 57...
... fuel cells; (3) hydrogen storage on the vehicle; (4)
From page 58...
... However, the energy density and specific energy of liquid HC fuels is so great that even considering these efficiency differences, a typical vehicle carrying a liquid HC will have significantly higher capability than that of an electric or hydrogen-powered vehicle in terms of deliverable work to the wheels per unit of mass and volume of vehicle energy storage onboard the vehicle. For example, comparing an ICE with an efficiency of 40 percent to a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV)
From page 59...
... emissions: Tier 2 Bin 5 (T2B5) • Power-train cost: <$30/kW The general focus of the ACEC technical team's work to achieve these targets continues to be lean-burn, direct-injection engines for vehicles fueled by diesel, gasoline, and biofuel or other alternative fuels, provided appropriate carbon emis sion mitigation is accomplished during their production.
From page 60...
... In all these endeavors, the key hurdle continues to be detailed fundamental understanding of the chemical, thermal, and physical processes taking place within the power train and combustion system. Good progress is being made by the ACEC technical team in meeting the technical targets.
From page 61...
... To conduct such a program successfully requires close coordination among industry, government laboratories, and academia. The ACEC technical team continues to do a good job with this close coordination.
From page 62...
... Phase 2 review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership research program (NRC, 2008) , changes in the country's energy situation have occurred.
From page 63...
... Pending fuel economy standards will impact the vehicle mix as the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet turns over. Vehicles will become smaller and lighter.
From page 64...
... As the vehicle mix within the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet is likely to change with the implementation of the new fuel economy standards, the advanced combustion and emission control technical team should 6 As with the discussion in this section, hybrid and even plug-in hybrid power trains are included in the general classification of power train.
From page 65...
... , to name a few, while projected costs have con tinually decreased. The activities have been coordinated directly by the fuel cell technical team organized under the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Executive Steering Group (ESG)
From page 66...
... The committee's assessment is that the fuel cell technical team is well coordinated and is aligned with respect to the achievement of the goals and the longer-term, high-risk technology challenges, especially as the OEMs are now road testing prototype HFCVs. In light of the prior funding of this program as reported in this review period (2007-2009)
From page 67...
... Table 3-1 presents selected fuel cell stack targets, the current status, and the progress against such targets as reported by the DOE and the Partnership. Even with such data, complicating the comprehensive understanding of the status of the fuel cell technology is the fact that the OEMs have their own respective (proprietary)
From page 68...
... Key achievements highlighted by the DOE and made since the Phase 2 review (NRC, 2008) are primarily performance- and cost-related: in particular, fuel cell stack technology tested under realistic on-road operating conditions.
From page 69...
... As reported in a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) report prepared for the DOE on the patents originated from the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT)
From page 70...
... However, the coordination of the program (targets) by the fuel cell technical team could be reevaluated in some areas, such as the following: • The system being modeled by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)
From page 71...
... As European and Asian car manufacturers are announcing fuel cell vehicle commercialization target dates in the 2015 time frame, the role that the DOE plays in supporting the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership has become even more critical. conclusions and observations Technology has advanced since the NRC Phase 2 review, and it is progressing even in spite of the current economic and automotive industry challenges.
From page 72...
... The DOE, with input from the fuel cell technical team, should evaluate, and in selected cases accelerate, the timing of the "go/no-go" decisions when it is evident that significant technological progress has been made and adopted by the OEMs. oNBoard hYdroGeN sToraGe Background Onboard hydrogen storage is a key enabler for fuel-cell-powered vehicles.
From page 73...
... The hydrogen storage technical team and the DOE provide guidance for the work of the COEs. The program also includes several independent projects that are not associated with any of the COEs (see Figure 3-3)
From page 74...
... US Borax Center of High surface area sorbents National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Excellence including metal-carbon Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., on Hydrogen hybrids, boron-carbon California Institute of Technology, Duke Sorption materials, metal organic University, Lawrence Livermore National frameworks, nanohorns and Laboratory, National Institute of Standards fibers, conducting and porous and Technology, Oak Ridge National polymers; modeling and Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, mechanistic understanding Rice University, University of Michigan, University of North Carolina, University of Pennsylvania Center of Light-weight complex Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, Excellence hydrides, destabilized binary Brookhaven National Laboratory, California on Metal hydrides, intermetallic Institute of Technology, General Electric, Hydrides hydrides, modified lithium HRL Laboratories, Intematix Corporation, amides, and other advanced Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Institute onboard reversible hydrides of Standards and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory, Stanford University, University of Hawaii, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Nevada Reno, University of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Mellon University, University of Utah Hydrogen Energy challenges associated Savannah River National Laboratory, Pacific Storage with developing low-pressure Northwest National Laboratory, United Engineering material-based hydrogen Technologies Research Center, Los Alamos Center of storage systems for enabling National Laboratory, NASA Jet Propulsion Excellence onboard storage of hydrogen Laboratory, National Renewable Energy for fuel-cell-powered vehicles Laboratory, General Motors Company, Ford and for achieving customer Motor Company, Oregon State University, expected driving range and Lincoln Composites, Inc. performance.
From page 75...
... 2. Basic science for hydrogen storage conducted through DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.
From page 76...
... The targets and timing for the onboard hydrogen storage program were revised since the Phase 2 review to reflect the knowledge gained from real-world vehicle experience and the vehicle weight and space appropriate for market penetration. The revised targets assume that the vehicle architecture will change between gasoline ICE and HFCVs.
From page 77...
... . • The down-select decision on chemical hydrogen storage materials was made (2008)
From page 78...
... In the nearer term, ambient physical storage provides a means for advancing the integrated hydrogen fuel cell system development and gaining experience while the materials storage approach is developed further. The ambient systems (the current and simplest configuration)
From page 79...
... 350 Bar 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen "Learning Demonstrations"* DOE, October 2009 Gravimetric Capacity (wt%)
From page 80...
... is the result of a field evaluation for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle. This field test included data analysis by NREL and SRNL through a collaborative research and development agreement (CRADA)
From page 81...
... • A full-scale prototype has been developed for cryo-compressed hydrogen storage. significant Barriers and issues That Need to Be addressed The hydrogen storage program has good recognition of the many technical needs and challenges that it faces.
From page 82...
... • The down-select for onboard reversible hydrogen storage materials and for chemical hydrogen storage approaches with the potential to meet 2015 targets is set for the fourth quarter of 2013. • Complete laboratory-scale prototype system and evaluation against 2015 targets is scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2015.
From page 83...
... In order to address the fuel storage needs of and to set priorities for fuel cell applications, the EERE plans to conduct a Request for Information (RFI) and a workshop during FY 2010.
From page 84...
... The hydrogen storage program is one of the most critical parts of the hydrogen/fuel cell vehicle part of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership -- both for physical (compressed gas) and for materials storage.
From page 85...
... and BEV technologies, which would compete with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, may offer a transitional means to improve fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. Since the success of HFCVs is not assured, this transition role could turn out in many cases to be a more permanent scenario.
From page 86...
... , manages the electrochemical energy storage technology program with a goal of the advancement of battery technologies, to the point that the program partners are encouraged to introduce hybrid and electric vehicles with large market potential. Technology development is undertaken by battery manu facturers, DOE national laboratories, and universities, and by awards through the SBIR program.
From page 87...
... Although the ARRA funding is short term for the purpose of establishing a manufacturing base and primarily increasing employment, it has the potential of influencing continued research and development of advanced batteries into the future. Until 2007, the FCVT program was primarily involved in the development of high-power electrochemical energy storage systems for HEVs.
From page 88...
... As discussed in further detail in the section below on "Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems," a series drivetrain powers the vehicle only by an electric motor using electricity from the battery. The battery is charged from the electricity grid or by the vehicle's gasoline engine by means of a generator.
From page 89...
... Further details on energy storage and power electronics are contained in the PHEV R&D plan.11 The design of a PHEV battery requires the simultaneous optimization of power, energy, and life while maintaining safety and reducing cost. There are 11 See and .
From page 90...
... The lithium nickelate system has the highest energy density, and the lithium iron phosphate is considered inherently safer than the other two systems. Thus, the Partnership has followed multiple paths of development using different materials and designs to optimize performance, life, and cost.
From page 91...
... 13 Howell, D., and K Snyder, "Electrochemical Energy Storage," Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009.
From page 92...
... These increased efforts will require increased funding for high-energy batteries and include leveraging all other efforts on electrochemistry and energy storage materials efforts within the DOE and the larger electrochemistry community. The increasing market share of HEVs and the introduction of PHEVs will result in increasing numbers of advanced batteries in automotive applications.
From page 93...
... and one or more electrical machines is needed for HEVs, PHEVs, HFCVs, and BEVs, to provide traction to the wheels from the prime mover. The prime mover for the propulsion system can be an engine, engine-driven generator, battery, or fuel cell, depending on the energy source.
From page 94...
... current status and assessment The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership focuses on electric drives that require a source of power that provides direct current at voltages of the order of 200 to 450 V As shown in Figures 3-6 through 3-10, the vehicle power source is a fuel cell, an engine-driven generator, or a battery.
From page 95...
... Wheels Engine Motor Generator Differential Electronics Wheels Battery Electrical link Mechanical link FiGUre 3-7 Schematic of series drive configuration for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (similar to the GM Volt)
From page 96...
... because of their superior performance. Power electronics convert the dc from the source into an ac of variable voltage and variable frequency needed by the motors.
From page 97...
... Compact and efficient motors and power electronics are essential to all four types of vehicles that the Partnership is working on, namely, HFCVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs. The present discussion focuses on a review of the traction drive technology status and development efforts to optimize its components for vehicle propulsion, dealing separately with power electronics, electrical machines, and electrical systems.
From page 98...
... As mentioned in the preceding discussion, SiC devices are better than devices based on doped silicon, because they operate at higher temperatures and have faster switching times. Potentially they lead to smaller and more efficient power electronics.
From page 99...
... high-Temperature capacitors. Developing capacitors that can operate at high temperatures could increase the cooling efficiency and thus reduce the size of power electronics.
From page 100...
... . Primary areas for development are similar to those for power electronics: to reduce size, losses, and cost.
From page 101...
... As discussed below, the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership gave a contract to investigate such materials to General Electric, but it appears that the program was discontinued. Developments in this area, such as the soft magnetic material that Toyota uses in the boost converter in its power electronics, should be monitored (Nozawa et al., 2009)
From page 102...
... Additional information available January 2010 indicated the following: o Soft magnetic materials: Some of the work was concluded as not being promising. However, one of the industry awards, General Electric, is continuing the work in the hope of a breakthrough.
From page 103...
... The focus is on the two subsystems -- battery chargers and system controllers -- used in hybrid, electric, or fuel cell vehicles. Battery chargers.
From page 104...
... of the air supply system for a fuel cell balance of plant as discussed below. 21 compressor expander motor for Fuel cell Vehicles.
From page 105...
... The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. sTrUcTUral maTerials The challenge to the materials technical team is to generate a cost-neutral 50 percent vehicle weight reduction.
From page 106...
... A lighter vehicle can perform equally well with smaller brakes, a less hefty suspension, and a smaller engine. During the past year, the materials technical team arrived at a useful rule of thumb in which 1.0 to 1.5 lb of secondary weight savings should be achievable for each 1 lb of primary weight saved, provided that the entire vehicle can be redesigned to take advantage of the savings.
From page 107...
... A second pilot operation is to begin in the first quarter of 2010 to evaluate the recycling of polyurethane foams by converting them to polyols. The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership also needs to consider how to recycle carbon-fiber-reinforced composites including carbon-fiber hydro gen tanks.
From page 108...
... recommendation 3-22. The materials technical team should develop a systemsanalysis methodology to determine the currently most cost-effective way for achieving a 50 percent weight reduction for hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.
From page 109...
... 2009. "Mass-Production Cost Estimation of Automotive Fuel Cell Sys tems." Presentation at DOE 2009 Annual Merit Review, May 21, Arlington, Virginia.
From page 110...
... Report to United States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program; Part 1 (Vol ume 1) , December 10.
From page 111...
... 4FC/35 ICE 3FC/35 ICE 3FC/35 ICE from storage system; FC = fuel cell, ICE = internal combustion engine Max delivery pressure Atm (abs) 100 100 100 from storage systemg continued
From page 112...
... 70 MPa) compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, or chilled hydrogen (35 to 77 K)
From page 113...
... Note that some storage technologies may produce contaminants for which effects are unknown; these will be addressed as more information becomes available. k Total hydrogen lost into the environment as H ; relates to hydrogen accumulation in enclosed 2 spaces.


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