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Appendix D: Icebreaking Polar Research Vessels and Heavy Icebreakers
Pages 177-182

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From page 177...
... Gould, primarily dedicated to support research operations in the Antarctic Peninsula area. The status of the icebreaker capabilities of the United States has been discussed in several previous NRC reports (National Research Council, 2007b, 2011c, 2011e)
From page 178...
... Naval Forces, "future U.S. national icebreaker assets should be defined as part of a holistic force structure that also accommodates ongoing National Science Foundation-sponsored polar research needs." Icebreakers that can navigate in multiyear ice of Antarctica represent one of the most expensive infrastructures for Southern Ocean oceanographic and biological research and for access to coastal regions of East Antarctica as well as stations in West Antarctica and the vital resupply route to McMurdo.
From page 179...
... U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Healy is designed for heavy ice and polar research missions of NSF, length 130 m and maximum power 22 MW; (c)
From page 181...
... On the other hand, a U.S.-flagged polar heavy icebreaker with capabilities for year-round operations in Antarctica in combination with a dedicated icebreaking polar research vessel does anticipate requirements for the next 20 years of science in the Southern Ocean, U.S. responsibilities for Antarctic stewardship, and U.S.

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