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Appendix E: Components of an Antarctic and Southern Ocean Observing System
Pages 183-186

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From page 183...
... The list is neither meant to be comprehensive, nor should the following be seen as a description of the final design of an Antarctic and Southern Ocean observing system. Detailing a comprehensive strategy for such an observing system was believed beyond the scope of this committee; any such strategy would be best done by an independently selected committee of specialists, especially with respect to cyberinfrastructure requirements that might need long lead times for development and deployment.
From page 184...
... Redundant, autonomous mobile sensors controlled by adaptive networks are well worth exploring for the Antarctic continent, while enhanced drifting buoys might be used in the sea ice zone and open ocean regions. Ground-based remote sensing involving radar, wind profilers, Doppler acoustic sounders, temperature profilers, cloud radars, and cloud LIDAR can improve upon data retrieved from current radiosondes.
From page 185...
... Among other important variables to measure are accumulation rates, glacial surface temperatures, ice velocity, ice thickness, surface elevation, changes in grounding lines, and location of subglacial lakes. Acoustic depth gauges, surface density measurements, near-surface temperature profiles, and other strategies may provide valuable information for an observing network.
From page 186...
... can be used to study permafrost at local scales, and monitoring stations could include microclimate information on soil temperature, water activity, carbon dioxide (CO2) , and pulsed amplitude modulation fluorometry.

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