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Appendix F: Biomarkers
Pages 109-113

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From page 109...
... 2 Christian Cajochen, Daniel P Brunner, Kurt Kräuchi, Peter Graw, and Anna Wirz-Justice, 1995, "Power Density in Theta/Alpha Frequencies of the Waking EEG Progressively Increases During Sustained Wakefulness," Sleep 18:890-894; Christian Cajochen, Rosalba Di Biase, and Makoto Imai, 2008, "Interhemospheric EEG Asymmetries During Unilateral Bright-Light Exposure and Subsequent Sleep in Humans," American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 294:R1053-1060; Julian Lim and David F
From page 110...
... DECISION SPACE Decision making in conducting enhanced company operations in hybrid engagement, complex environments is carried out in a context of complexity, the time duration of the mission, and geographical distribution. The complex ity of decision making is confounded by the conflicting goals of kinetic combat conducted simultaneously with nonkinetic interactions involving noncombatants with a strategic mission to "win the hearts and minds of the population." The time element can range from tactical issues that last for minutes to long-term strategic issues that may last for weeks and months.
From page 111...
... This plot in Figure F.2 can be thought of as the "decision space." The decision space also includes many coupled dependencies, such as the impact of noncombatant and combatant casualties on psychological stress, time urgency as a function of rapidly changing conditions, the logistics of supplying needed support over a great distance, and the quantity and validity of the data that contribute to situational awareness. And, of course, all of these interactions are Decision Complexity High Complex Simple Complex Space Long time Focal Distributed (local)
From page 112...
... Individual differences include intelligence, adaptability, specific situational awareness, and training. It is well known that the effectiveness of the decision maker is particularly impacted by chronic and acute stressors as a function of time.4 Individual characteristics of adaptability can result in different levels of continuing performance over a broad level of stress and over an extended period, but for each individual there is a cumulative effect of chronic stress punctuated 4 PeterA.
From page 113...
... The critical technical issue that needs to be resolved is whether physiologi cal monitoring using biomarkers can be used to determine the performance stress curves for individuals and whether those data can be used in a predictive manner to improve decision making under realistic stress conditions.

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