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Appendix A: Appropriate Training Methods and Technologies
Pages 91-94

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From page 91...
... The first training requirement is that astronauts be ready to perform specific, isolated tasks, and the second training requirement is that the depth of understanding required for each task be deliberately identified and established. The NASA Mission Operations Directorate currently has a task analysis methodology that is used to define tasks and to classify each task for each crew member according to whether the crew member will be a user, an operator, or a specialist; these classifications are then considered in the development of training facilities.
From page 92...
... training; it situates the astronauts in a perceptibly risky environment so that they experience the discomfort and limited movement of a real space suit, and it strives to provide a realistic representation of International Space Station components such that the astronauts can quickly recognize important features from multiple perspectives. Some industries, such as commercial aviation, have a significant population to train and have used an economy of scale to streamline training systematically.
From page 93...
... Finally, perhaps the least tangible aspect of training addresses the meta-cognitive, or executive, functions that astronauts must perform as part of their "cognitive control" while under stress. In their study of stress and human performance, Salas, Driskell, and Hughes define stress as the process by which certain environmental demands evoke an appraisal process in which perceived demand exceeds resources, and the result is undesirable psychological, physiological, or behavioral outcomes; for example, stress-related failures of decision making have been attributed to nearly half of fatal aviation accidents.2 At a basic level, training for cognitive control and effective stress response is related to the development of executive functions that guide selective attention to appropriate aspects of the environment -- such as pilots learning, when disoriented, to focus on a visual scan of flight instruments despite conflicting vestibular sensations.
From page 94...
... However, as noted throughout this appendix, the most important tasks must be trained to the level of skill-based behavior and to the extent that the astronauts can apply effective stress responses, and this requires training in real, stressful environments. Thus, sufficient training cannot be provided only in cheaper, low-fidelity simulations or classroom environments.

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