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Executive Summary
Pages 1-4

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From page 1...
... The human activities include physical disturbance and air pollution, including acids, oxidants, toxic organic compounds, and trace metals. Stresses often occur in combination, and effects of particular stresses on trees and forests are difficult to recognize.
From page 2...
... A second task of the committee was to formulate recommendations on the basis of the workshop presentations and the committee's own deliberations for the further development and use of markers of tree and forest damage from air pollution. The committee believes that several current efforts to develop and apply markers of airpollutant effects are promising and should be expanded.
From page 3...
... 5. Ongoing regional surveys of forest responses to air pollution should be used to help identify specific areas for detailed studies of air-pollution effects.

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