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Using Markers in Surveys and Experimental Studies
Pages 15-16

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From page 15...
... Surveys of Stress and Damage In addition to reporting the number and species of trees showing visible injury, decreased growth, or mortality, damage surveys or monitoring programs also provide information on spatial or temporal trends in forest-canopy variables. Properly designed surveys can be used to determine the strength of an association between suspected causal agents and degree of damage in forests, determine the degree of spatial and temporal consistency, and define biologic and environmental gradients.
From page 16...
... Most of the biologic markers mentioned above as appropriate for survey and monitoring studies should also provide valuable information if used in controlledexposure studies; the results of the latter studies should improve understanding of the linkage between the effects measured by such markers and their causes. Additional markers reviewed in the workshop papers that the committee considered to be particularly appropriate for use in controlled-exposure studies are: lichens and other plant indicators (discussed by Scott and Hutchinson and Weinstein and Laurence)

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