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The Workshop
Pages 7-10

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From page 7...
... He suggested the use of alternative methods, such as comparison of visibly damaged versus undamaged trees, comparison of trees at different sites exposed to different pollution regimes, and controlled-exposure experiments intended to improve the validity of large-scale field surveys. Tingey examined general applications and constraints in the use of biologic markers for air pollution research.
From page 8...
... The existence of all those variations and gaps in knowledge makes it difficult to determine whether different groups of scientists in different locations are working on similar or different sets of forest decline problems. Physiologic, Morphologic, and Ecologic Markers The authors of this group of papers examined physiologic processes and structural features as potentially useful markers of air pollution in trees.
From page 9...
... Carefully selected indicator species not only can identify some pollutants but also can provide estimates of pollutant distribution and a rough approximation of source strength. Of the many plant species that are sensitive to air pollution, a large number are low in cultivation cost, require little maintenance, and can be grown over wide geographic areas, including remote sites where the absence of electric power precludes many on-site measurements.
From page 10...
... The answers are complicated and somewhat unsatisfactory, but, in view of the importance of this issue for understanding and controlling air pollution in the United States and elsewhere, are worthy of review.

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