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Pages 169-239

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From page 169...
... After safety and security, the preservation of assets is the next highest priority in the FAA Airport Improvement Program funding priority system. A local airport sponsor is required to properly maintain airport pavement assets after the FAA invests grant funds; the pavement management program is a key part of this requirement.
From page 170...
... As identified in ACRP Report 138, Volume 1, there are several steps to establish a preventive maintenance program. Before starting the process of implementing a preventive maintenance program, its goals -- or guiding principles -- should be identified.
From page 171...
... It will provide such reports on pavement condition and pavement management programs as the Secretary determines may be useful. Maintaining lighting systems requires special consideration due to the system's high voltage.
From page 172...
... The ultimate goal of asset management is to lower total ownership costs by making better proactive decisions. O&M = operations and maintenance, CIP = capital improvement program, AM = asset management Source: ACRP Report 69: Asset and Infrastructure Management for Airports -- Primer and Guidebook, 2012 1.
From page 173...
... A pavement management program is a requirement for federally obligated airports (those that accept Airport Improvement Program grants) under Grant Assurance 11: Pavement Preventive Maintenance.
From page 174...
... Appendix A of ACRP Report 159 also includes pictures and distress information on asphalt pavement, and Appendix B addresses concrete pavements. Based on the distress, it Source: FAA Advisory Circular 150/5380-7B, Airport Pavement Management Program, Figure 2, October 10, 2014.
From page 175...
... As part of a pavement management program, airports or state aeronautics agencies may establish minimum acceptable PCI ratings. These typically differ by pavement type, with runways having higher minimum threshold levels than taxiways or aprons.
From page 176...
... Also, upon completion of projects funded through the AIP or revenue for a PFC project, the airport will update the Form 5010 elements associated with gross weight and PCN. PCI Description Applicable Pavement Preservation Treatments 86–100 Good – only minor distresses Routine maintenance only 71–85 Satisfactory – low and medium distresses Preventive maintenance 56–70 Fair – some distresses are severe Corrective maintenance and rehabilitation 41–55 Poor – severity of some distresses can cause operational problems Rehabilitation or reconstruction 26–40 Very poor – severe distresses cause operational restrictions Rehabilitation and reconstruction 11–25 Serious – many severe distresses cause operational restrictions Immediate repairs and reconstruction 1–10 Failed – pavement deterioration prevents safe aircraft operations Reconstruction Source: ACRP Synthesis 22: Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices, Table 1, 2011 Table 11.
From page 177...
... : A set of regulations and procedures permitting qualified and current IFR pilots to penetrate clouds and low-visibility conditions. Aircraft must be equipped with radio and navigation instruments and operate under air traffic control flight plans and clearances.
From page 178...
... The first step in the process is planning. For an airport, it typically starts as a master plan.
From page 179...
... The master plan or ALP is a tool for the airport manager. The master plan can be used to justify the need for and provide a road map for future improvements.
From page 180...
... When preparing the scope of work for a planning project, these SOPs should be consulted, along with FAA Advisory Circular 150/5070-6: Airport Master Plans. Some states also have an ALP checklist that typically mirrors the FAA Standard Operating Procedure 2 requirements.
From page 181...
... Chapter 3 in ACRP Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning provides a more detailed summary on airport planning as it relates to GA airports. For a master plan Keep the ALP updated to meet grant assurances -- and keep the grant funding flowing.
From page 182...
... Standards. Even if not required, an airport may elect to prepare a planning project as an Airports GIS project to have the data available for other purposes, such as instrument approach development requests.
From page 183...
... ACRP Report 129 built upon the findings of ACRP Synthesis 4: Counting Aircraft Operations at Nontowered Airports, which surveyed the small airport industry to identify frequently used methods. For small airports with an ATCT, the tower count can be used, which is also recorded by the FAA and can be accessed at the FAA's Air Traffic Activity System (ATADS)
From page 184...
... Aircraft operating requirements will vary with temperature, elevation and the wet or dry condition of the runway. A sample user survey for aircraft operational data is included in ACRP WebResource 6.
From page 185...
... • A change in critical aircraft • A new or revised instrument approach procedure that increases the size of the RPZ • A local development proposal within the RPZ, including uses summarized in the text box The FAA recommends that an airport have a property interest in the RPZ; fee simple is preferred, but at a minimum, an avigation easement is required. Ownership of the RPZ allows an airport to control the land use; however, this is not always feasible, as proposed new airfield development may move or increase the size of the RPZ -- in which case, coordination with the FAA is required and can be included as part of the planning for the improvement.
From page 186...
... Strategic plans are more vision, mission and goals oriented, with a focus on staffing and setting policies. ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry describes strategic planning, the process, its benefits and the development of mission, vision and values statements.
From page 187...
... As noted, the airport master plan is typically a 20-year planning document that identifies the capital development required to support the strategic and business plans for the airport. Business Plan Content As described in ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Airport Business Plans, a business plan typically contains the following elements: • Mission statement: conveys the purpose of the airport • Vision statement: describes the aspirations for the airport • Values statement: describes the belief of the airport organization • Goals: identify the desired outcome that must be achieved to realize the mission and vision for the airport • Objectives: define significant steps toward achieving a goal • Action plans: identify who is going to do what, when, where, why and how to accomplish a specific objective • Budget: forecasts the potential financial performance of the airport with the implementation of the plan ACRP Report 77 includes a series of presentations and worksheets for developing and implementing an airport business plan.
From page 188...
... By communicating the airport's business plan goals with the airport stakeholders and local community, expectations of the airport from the various parties can be aligned. Because the airport business plan is a tool for reaching beyond the airport, when undertaking an airport business plan, it is important for the airport management to have buy-in from its policymaking board.
From page 189...
... Instrument approach procedure (IAP) : A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the approach to a landing, or to a point from which a landing may be completed with visual references.
From page 190...
... Automatic Dependent Surveillance -- Broadcast A key element to the full implementation of the NextGen air traffic control modernization initiative is for aircraft to communicate their positions among themselves. This is being accomplished by equipping aircraft with ADS-B transponders while also providing weather and flight information services.
From page 191...
... The condition of the airspace surrounding the airport is used to establish safe approach-decision heights and visibility minimums, and, conversely, these minimums are used to establish the airport design criteria requirements for future airport development. Airport Design Standards for Instrument Approaches Historically, approach types have been classified as visual, nonprecision and precision, with precision approaches (ILS)
From page 192...
... Requires clear VGS HIRL = high intensity runway light, MIRL = medium intensity runway light Source: Adapted from FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, Change 1, Table 3-4, February 26, 2014 < Table 13. Standards for instrument approach procedures.
From page 193...
... The final step in the process is the publication of the approach procedure as a part of the regular procedure update and publication cycle (56-day update cycle)
From page 194...
... Key Definitions Airport influence area: An area adjacent to an airport that can affect or be affected by airports and aircraft operations that necessitate restrictions on those land uses. Community comprehensive plan: Generally, a formally adopted general or master plan for a community, which elaborates and codifies the community's long-range goals in the areas of land use, transportation, utilities, environmental and other areas, driven by established goals, objectives and implementing policies.
From page 195...
... Per ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land-Use Compatibility, a three-volume resource, compatible land uses near airports have been defined by the industry as those that neither expose the public to unacceptable levels of noise or hazards nor constrain the airport's safe and efficient operations. There are legal issues associated with establishing airport-compatible land use as described in ACRP Legal Research Digest 5: Responsibility for Implementation and Enforcement of Airport Land-Use Zoning Restrictions and ACRP Legal Research Digest 14: Achieving AirportCompatible Land Uses and Minimizing Hazardous Obstructions in Navigable Airspace.
From page 196...
... Similar to deed restrictions, the key shortcoming of real estate disclosures is the timing when such disclosures are introduced in the sales process. Sector or Area Planning Area plans may be developed as a segment of a community master plan or comprehensive plan to set forth overarching goals and a growth strategy for a large geographical area.
From page 197...
... Pennsylvania Department of Transportation provides model zoning ordinance language for an airport district overlay. The Transportation Research Synthesis by the Minnesota DOT, Airspace Protection and Land Use Zoning: A Nationwide Review of State Statutes, summarizes airspace zoning-related regulations by state and includes some sample airspace zoning ordinances.
From page 198...
... ACRP Report 27 contains practical and easy-to-understand guidance on evaluating land-use compatibility on the basis of use characteristics and permitted densities. The zoning policies should also address such items as impacts on RPZs due to emissions of light, glare or smoke; the location of wildlife attractants; and congregations of people under the airport's approach and departure surfaces.
From page 199...
... Asset Management -- Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 199 Establishing Procedures and Mechanisms for Regulatory Implementation and Relief Lastly, airport protection zoning regulations should establish meaningful and predictable procedures for ordinance implementation. The procedures should consider private property rights in balance with the benefits of airport development and operations.
From page 200...
... FAA Standard Operating Procedure 3 provides an outline of the requirements for an Exhibit "A" property map. Key Definitions Exhibit "A" property map: A drawing of the dedicated airport property, including detailed information about how the property was acquired, the funding source for the land and if the land was conveyed as federal surplus land or government property.
From page 201...
... FAA Standard Operating Procedure 3: FAA Review of Exhibit "A" Property Inventory Maps is a good guide to use when preparing or reviewing your airport's Exhibit "A" property map and includes the Exhibit "A" property map review checklist used by the FAA ADO staff. Additional information on the Exhibit "A" property map and associated land acquisition requirements can be found in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5100-17: Land Acquisition and Relocation Assistance for Airport Improvement Program Assisted Projects.
From page 202...
... : An assessment of the environmental effects of a proposed action for which federal financial assistance is being requested or for which federal authorization is required. The EA serves as the basis for the FAA's environmental impact statement or finding of no significant impact.
From page 203...
... Implementing Instructions for Airport Actions is specific to the FAA Airports line of business that oversees AIP grants for airports. The FAA's Environmental Desk Reference for Airport Actions summarizes the special-purpose laws and associated environmental impact categories to assist with NEPA implementation.
From page 204...
... and State Mini-NEPA Laws provides a summary of relevant federal and state environmental review statutes and the responsibility of various stakeholders. Environmental Analysis for Airport Projects The FAA recognizes that it is important for the environment to be considered throughout a project's formulation.
From page 205...
... The FAA is generally the lead agency for airport projects. While not common, there can be a cooperating agency that will work with the FAA on the EA.
From page 206...
... FAR Part 161. Airport operators may apply to the FAA for the approval of Stage 3 aircraft noise and access restrictions, which limit the type of aircraft, establish an official noise abatement approach and departure procedures or limit the hours of Stage 3 aircraft operations.
From page 207...
... Even airports that receive little precipitation must have measures in place to minimize stormwater exposure to pollutants. ACRP Report 53: A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning provides information on establishing a water resource management program and integrating it into project planning and implementation.
From page 208...
... They can be addressed as part of the SWPPP development. The University of Minnesota, Center for Transportation Studies, Airport Technical Assistance Program has published Agricultural Aircraft Operations on Municipal Airports as a guidebook for airport operators.
From page 209...
... Additionally, the FAA has begun an initiative that allocates Airport Improvement Program funding to the development of sustainable airport master plans and for certain airport sustainability planning initiatives. Key Definitions Commissioning (Cx)
From page 210...
... • ACRP Synthesis 77: Airport Sustainability Practices compiled information about airport sustainability for inclusion in SAGA. • ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects identifies opportunities to include sustainability in airport practices and has an evaluation tool.
From page 211...
... As LED systems for airports evolve, the lighting industry is working to overcome some of the issues with light brightness and dimming. ACRP Synthesis 35: Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures and ACRP Report 148: LED Airfield Lighting System Operation and Maintenance contain valuable information and considerations for LED implementation and maintenance on airports.
From page 212...
... Airports may also benefit from engaging in water-efficiency planning, with a focus on evaluating the measures that can be designed and implemented to extract the maximum benefit in water and energy cost savings. Extensive information on this topic can be located in ACRP Report 154: Water Efficiency Management Strategies for Airports.
From page 213...
... While tailored to a large airport, many of the concepts could also be scaled to smaller airports. The FAA's airport sustainability web page includes links to completed sustainability master plans and airport sustainability plans.
From page 214...
... Proper grant administration requires good record keeping during the project and is important for timely payments and grant closeout. Key Definitions Airport Improvement Program (AIP)
From page 215...
... Grant Application When a project is anticipated to receive AIP funding, the airport sponsor must submit a grant application. FAA Standard Operating Procedure 6: FAA Review and Approval of an Airport Improvement Program (AIP)
From page 216...
... The recommended steps for a project's design and construction processes are described in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5370-12: Quality Management for Federally Funded Airport Construction Projects. ACRP Report 116: Guidebook for Successfully Assessing and Managing Risks for Airport Capital and Maintenance Projects provides a step-by-step process for evaluating and managing project risks throughout the various phases of a project.
From page 217...
... FAA Standard Operating Procedure 1: FAA Evaluation of Sponsor's Construction Safety and Phasing Plans Funded by the AIP or PFC Programs identifies the information required to be part of the CSPP. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5370-2: Operational Safety on Airports During Construction provides guidance for developing the CSSP.
From page 218...
... 218 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Airport sponsors establish an overall DBE participation goal covering a 3-year fiscal period if anticipating awarding FAA-funded prime contracts with a cumulative total value that exceeds $250,000 during any one or more of the fiscal years within the 3-year goal period. Eligible DBE firms must be certified by a state-unified certification program agency.
From page 219...
... FAA Standard Operating Procedure 10: Administrative Closeout of Airport Improvement Program Grants identifies the FAA process and required documentation to close a grant. For the FAA to close a grant, the grant should be physically complete, its administrative requirements met and its financial actions processed.
From page 220...
... If a sponsor proceeds with a contract change without prior approval from the FAA or state, it is at the sponsor's risk. The FAA's review process for construction change orders is outlined in FAA Standard Operating Procedure 7: Airport Improvement Program Construction Project Change Orders.
From page 221...
... Grant Closeout FAA Standard Operating Procedure 10: Administrative Closeout of Airport Improvement Program Grants establishes the procedures to close an AIP grant. For block grant state airports, the grant closeout process should be coordinated with the state aeronautics agency.
From page 222...
... 222 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports FAA Airports GIS is required of the completed facilities. This survey data must be submitted to the FAA Airports GIS website.
From page 223...
... Complying with Federal, State and Local Requirements While state and local jurisdiction requirements may vary, federal government requirements for land acquisition using federal funds are stringent, subject to 49 CFR Part 24, Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Act, also known as the Uniform Act or URA. The URA, passed by Congress in 1970, is a federal law that establishes minimum standards for federally funded programs and projects that require the acquisition of real property or displace persons from their homes, businesses or farms.
From page 224...
... The FAA guidance for land acquisition is provided in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5100-17: Land Acquisition and Relocation Assistance for Airport Improvement Program Assisted Projects. Appendix Q: Land Projects of FAA Order 5100.38 also identifies the requirements for AIP-eligible land acquisition projects.
From page 225...
... An EDDA is always recommended but is required under the following conditions: • Purchase or sale of FAA-encumbered property • Determination by the FAA technical reviewer of sufficient risk to warrant an EDDA • Suspected contamination on-site or in proximity • Any real property transactions involving FAA facilities An EDDA scope would largely depend on the basic knowledge of the subject property, its condition and its surroundings and determines the amount of professional effort required to conduct the audit. The process is conducted in phases.
From page 226...
... or even changes in airport design criteria. In that event, the airport sponsor may request a portion of obligated airport property to be released from federal obligations.
From page 227...
... Asset Management -- Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 227 • Description of all obligating agreements for the subject property • Description of the type of release or agreement modification requested • Reasons for release, modification or agreement amendment request • Anticipated airport use or disposition intent for the property or facilities • Justification, facts and circumstances for the request • Description of any applicable state or local regulations that may impact the property following the release (e.g., local comprehensive plan, state airspace protection regulations) If the property release request involves property disposition, the aforementioned request should be supplemented by the following: • Description of the property's FMV • Expected proceeds and revenues from the property disposition • Comparative analysis of relative advantages of property disposition, as opposed to retention for the purposes of generating rental income • In the event that the property will not be sold upon release and used for other airport sponsor purposes, a description of how the airport account will be reimbursed for the FMV of the property • Substantiated description of any anticipated intangible benefits to the airport from the property release, supported by information indicating the merits of the intangible benefits, as opposed to receiving an FMV for the property The FAA web page on Airport Land Acquisition: Release of Airport Property lists information that must be a part of the release request.
From page 228...
... the following: • Request cover letter, describing the original intent of the property acquisition (e.g., noise, safety, capacity) and how the proposed concurrent use will not interfere with the original intent • Explanation of the benefits of the proposed concurrent use • Property plat of the proposed lease, including the boundary description • Summary appraisal of the fair market rent, including appraisal of corollary benefits to the airport as a result of the concurrent use • Copy of the final FAA airspace determination of no hazard (obstruction evaluation or nonrule)
From page 229...
... Asset Management -- Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 229 Since the concurrent-use approval would potentially permit the airport to utilize the property for revenue-producing purposes, while retaining ownership and interest, this option should be considered as the preferred option before the airport sponsor considers seeking a formal land release from the federal government. Additionally, concurrent-use requests may require less state and local government scrutiny if they do not require changes to the legal status of the property or its land-use or zoning designation.
From page 230...
... • Frequency and timing of survey administration • Survey population • Sampling strategy and plan • Survey location and associated logistics (e.g., security clearance for survey staff, etc.) • External survey stakeholders and groups that may benefit from survey results ACRP Report 26: Guidebook for Conducting Airport User Surveys contains a broad range of information and solutions for airport survey planning, design and analysis.
From page 231...
... Asset Management -- Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 231 Benchmarking Studies As opposed to airport surveys, benchmarking studies measure your airport's metrics against the same metrics at other similar or competitive airports. A state system plan can also be used to benchmark existing facilities against recommended facilities.
From page 232...
... 232 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports at the state or regional level. Peer-to-peer experience sharing continues to be the most substantive means of real-world training and development for airport managers of various skill levels.
From page 233...
... Asset Management -- Maintaining Current Assets and Planning Development for the Future 233 • Consider your available budget when selecting a peer review format, but don't let potential costs deter you. There is value to any amount of peer input.
From page 234...
... IT System Design and Implementation Best Practices The delivery of IT resources remains a substantial challenge to managers of airports of all sizes, mainly because of the rapidly evolving nature of IT delivery systems' various facets and the highly technical nature of IT systems in general. According to the findings of the research that formed ACRP Report 59: Information Technology Systems at Airports -- A Primer, communication issues related to a lack of common understanding of IT demands and common process and decision-making approaches to evaluate IT measures create fundamental challenges to effective IT implementation.
From page 235...
... • ACRP Report 59: Information Technology Systems at Airports -- A Primer • ACRP Report 128: Alternative IT Delivery Methods and Best Practices for Small Airports • ACRP Report 140: Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity Scalability of IT Systems The intrinsic, scalable nature of IT solutions gives them the capability to handle increasingly higher or different workloads and be upgraded or enlarged to accommodate the workload. That scalability of IT systems translates well to the airport industry, based on the level of facility demands and operational complexity.
From page 236...
... Appendix C in ACRP Report 128 contains a detailed description and discussion of the various methods of application implementation and the risks and benefits of each solution. Outside Expertise Because IT systems are a rapidly changing field, it may be beneficial for the airport operator to contract for outside expertise through the use of consultants.
From page 237...
... Visual flight rules (VFR) : A defined set of FAA regulations covering the operation of aircraft primarily by visual reference to the horizon (for aircraft control)
From page 238...
... Acoustic devices and highway traffic counters will probably not give the data required, and highway traffic counters can be very unreliable, because they require the aircraft to roll across the counter. ACRP Report 129: Evaluating Methods for Counting Aircraft Operations at Nontowered Airports provides additional information on the advantages and disadvantages of the various traffic counting methods.
From page 239...
... In these cases, it is advantageous to hire the existing tower personnel to conduct the traffic counts for the desired extended hours. Although the ATCT personnel cannot control aircraft movements during these times, they have a high degree of knowledge and access to information, such as monitoring the common air traffic control frequency and observing radar information, if the tower is so equipped.


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