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Pages 89-168

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From page 89...
... : A system of weather sensors that collect and disseminate weather data to pilots and flight dispatchers so they may prepare for and monitor weather forecasts. The ASOS program is entirely federally funded, whereas AWOSs are generally funded by the operator or airport sponsor.
From page 90...
... : Any form of aid to navigation designed to assist the pilot with position and height information and wind conditions. Examples: instrument landing systems, visual approach slope indicators, precision approach path indicators, wind cones and very high frequency omnidirectional ranges.
From page 91...
... Also, as needed, the operator should issue a NOTAM to report deficient conditions that could have an immediate and critical impact on the safety of aircraft operations. This NOTAM must be cancelled by the airport operator when the deficient conditions are addressed.
From page 92...
... Construction areas (as required) NAVAIDS PAPIs/VASIs, REILs Approach lighting system Wind socks and associated lighting AWOS VEHICLES Airport/maintenance vehicles Mowing equipment Snow removal equipment (as needed)
From page 93...
... At Part 139 airports, ARFF capabilities must comply with the FAA-approved ACM and the airport's ARFF index must be appropriate for the size of air carrier aircraft serving the airport. Other areas to be inspected, as applicable, include ensuring the alarm and emergency notification communication systems are operable and determining the adequacy of the availability of fire extinguishing agents.
From page 94...
... 94 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports are inoperative and cannot be replaced immediately, as specified under FAR §139.319(g) , and a NOTAM must be issued regarding nonavailability of any rescue and firefighting capability, as specified under FAR §139.339.
From page 95...
... Flight service station (FSS) : A facility that provides information and service to aircraft pilots before, during and after flight but that is not responsible for giving instruction or clearance.
From page 96...
... for Airport Operators. The NOTAM system should be used to report the following conditions or categories of information: • Surface areas: changes in hours of operations; hazards such as pavement issues, wildlife hazard conditions, surface conditions, airport construction, airport infrastructure deficiencies and airspace obstructions • Runway condition reports • NAVAID outages • Commissioning, decommissioning, opening, closing or abandonment of a public airport • A decrease in ARFF capability; restrictions to air carrier operations that may result • Changes to runway and taxiway identifiers, dimensions, declared distances, threshold placements, surface compositions and closures • Deficiencies in required NAS lighting systems, such as airport beacons, runway and taxiway lights and wind cones, including the commissioning, decommissioning, outages or changes in classification or operation The NOTAM should contain the following elements and maintain the following order: • Exclamation point • Accountability for established NOTAM (e.g., airport identification, flight data center)
From page 97...
... This feature is useful in the retention of records as required. Additional email addresses can be added to the account to provide copies of the NOTAM issuance or cancellation to selected tenants, users and the airport traffic control tower (ATCT)
From page 98...
... 98 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.3 Airport Emergency Plans Key Insights On-airport emergencies and natural disasters can occur without warning. Having a comprehensive emergency plan can be invaluable in minimizing the loss of life and property and in minimizing facility downtime.
From page 99...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 99 affect the airport and challenge the facility's hard and soft resiliency. When preparing for or planning to respond to emergencies, an airport should seek multiple avenues to increase its resiliency to high-impact events and establish practices that mitigate its short- and long-term impacts from these events.
From page 100...
... 100 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Familiarizing First Responders with the Airport Before an Emergency The next element of airport emergency planning involves familiarizing first responders with the airport to promote safety and efficient response. Familiarization with the airport operating environment is critical to ensure that first responders do not endanger themselves or airport patrons while responding to an emergency.
From page 101...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 101 life and property and harm to the environment. NIMS is the essential foundation to the National Preparedness System, developed with the purpose to provide a common approach to managing incidents in the areas of emergency prevention, mitigation, response and recovery.
From page 102...
... ACRP resources, such as the Airport Climate Risk Operational Screening tool available as a part of ACRP Report 147: Climate Change Adaptation Planning: Risk Assessment for Airports, can assist airport managers in conducting such assessments. Emergency Support Preparedness When planning for an emergency, several items must be considered.
From page 103...
... Long-range planning should be incorporated as a part of the fundamental airport master planning process, as well as the airport asset management and maintenance practices. Best practices and tools are available to help airports identify their vulnerabilities and facility elements that will be affected, such as ACRP Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience and ACRP Report 147.
From page 104...
... ACRP Report 88: Guidebook on Integrating GIS in Emergency Management at Airports provides a general overview of the various uses of GIS in emergency management, with an emphasis on best practices. The report also offers guided best practices for developing a GIS emergency management initiative, while providing an in-depth look at the fundamentals of GIS for airport operations and emergency management staff.
From page 105...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 105 4.4 Fueling Operations Key Insights Fueling operations at airports can be conducted by a private entity, via an agreement with the airport owner, or by the airport owner and may be full service or self-service. The public entity owning the airport has the right to elect to be the exclusive fuel provider; however, consideration must be given to existing contracts as well as the costs and projected income from fuel sales, before exercising such rights.
From page 106...
... 106 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports operates to prevent any person, firm or corporation operating aircraft on the airport from performing any services on its own aircraft with its own employees (including but not limited to maintenance, repair and fueling) that it may choose to perform." Thus, an aircraft owner has a right to self-fuel with its own employees, including bringing fuel to the airport, providing it is in conformance with the airport's rules and regulations.
From page 107...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 107 to county. It is essential to know the local requirements for your airport.
From page 108...
... 108 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports reasonable potential for discharge into or on navigable waters of the United States. Preparation of this plan allows the operator to proactively consider how spills will be contained and managed.
From page 109...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 109 Fuel System Inspections Airports that conduct the fueling operations should conduct a daily inspection on aircraft fueling facilities, including the fuel storage area and, if applicable, the fuel delivery vehicles. A fuel system inspection checklist template that can be adapted for airport-specific use is contained in ACRP WebResource 6.
From page 110...
... The airport owner should report and monitor any unsafe fueling practices and violations of local fire codes. ACRP Legal Research Digest 28: Operational and Legal Issues with Fuel Farms provides guidance on the operational issues of fuel farms that provide the storage and dispensing of aviation fuels to airport users.
From page 111...
... : Any area of the airport used or intended to be used for the landing, takeoff or surface maneuvering of aircraft, including runways, taxiways and, in some cases, ramp areas. Stakeholder: A person, group or organization that has interests or concerns in the airport and can affect or be affected by the airport's actions, objectives and policies, examples of which are employees, tenants, first responders and airport traffic control tower personnel.
From page 112...
... These committees can be organized separately or in combination to assist with the development and promotion of the programs. 49 CFR 1500 SERIES SECURITY REGULATIONS Part 1500 – Applicability, Terms and Abbreviations Part 1503 – Investigative and Enforcement Procedures Part 1520 – Protection of Sensitive Security Information Part 1540 – Civil Aviation Security: General Rules Part 1542 – Airport Security Part 1544 – Aircraft Operator Security Part 1546 – Foreign Air Carrier Security Part 1548 – Indirect Air Carrier Security Part 1550 – Aircraft Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules (12-5 Rule)
From page 113...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 113 Establishing the committee at the initial stages of the security program planning process will help ensure that critical areas of the program do not result in unintended consequences, such as unnecessarily restricting access to areas not intended to be restricted; proper consideration is given to access points; adequate access controls are developed; areas for security fencing are detailed; and access control and identification system requirements are determined. Involving airport tenants in the development of the security program is important and aids in its implementation.
From page 114...
... 114 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports and installed in phases as needed and as budget considerations allow. The technology and equipment available to accomplish the goals of the security program vary greatly.
From page 115...
... CCTV cameras can be used in a variety of areas such as at access points, in highrisk areas like fuel farms, on specific fence locations and at strategic points on the airport to monitor and record aircraft operations, including incidents. Camera types vary depending on the desired application.
From page 116...
... Other Security Requirements Applicable at Small Airports Three of the 49 CFR 1500 series regulations apply to small airports without commercial service: • Part 1550: Aircraft Security Under General Operating and Flight Rules, which applies to aircraft operations conducted in aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds • Part 1552: Flight Schools, which describes the procedures a flight school must follow before providing flight training • Part 1562: Operations in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area, which specifies regulations for the Maryland Three Program (three GA airports within the Washington, D.C.-restricted zone: College Park Airport, Potomac Airfield and Washington Executive Airpark/Hyde Field) and special requirements for GA aircraft wishing to use Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport While the managers of small airports may not be directly responsible for implementing these regulations, the managers should be aware of the regulations.
From page 117...
... Runway incursion: A top FAA safety concern, runway incursions are defined by the FAA as "any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft." Runway incursions can be caused by pilot deviations, air traffic controller operational incidents and ground vehicle deviations. Establishing a Training Program Establishing a staff training program is crucial to the effective and safe operation of the airport and in preventing injury to people or damage to property.
From page 118...
... • Wait for reply • Visually check for aircraft in the traffic pattern or on approach • Announce intentions a second time • If no reply, proceed onto the AOA • Continue to monitor UNICOM and maintain visual surveillance for aircraft
From page 119...
... , which is an air–ground communication facility operated by an entity that is not air traffic control, is used to provide advisory service at uncontrolled airports. The same frequency is also used by pilots for communications between aircraft at the airport as the primary means of communications.
From page 120...
... Chapter 7 of ACRP Report 32: Guidebook for Addressing Aircraft/Wildlife Hazards at General Aviation Airports provides guidance about wildlife hazard management training for GA personnel. Section 4.9: Wildlife Management of this document addresses wildlife management in more detail.
From page 121...
... ACRP Report 75: Airport Leadership Development Program can help existing and future airport leaders assess, obtain and refine airport-industry leadership skills. Most training can be located by an internet search for the desired training topic or content.
From page 122...
... 122 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports offer free aircraft familiarization tools. One such tool is the American Airlines ARFF Guide for iPad or eReader made available to familiarize responders with the aircraft that American Airlines flies.
From page 123...
... Maintenance equipment is never Airport Improvement Program grant eligible. Key Definitions Aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF)
From page 124...
... • The number of runways, taxiways and apron areas that are critical for aircraft operations are used to justify SRE. Typically, crosswind runways and supporting taxiways are not considered critical and are not included for SRE justification.
From page 125...
... Acquiring used or surplus property should be undertaken with great care to ensure the equipment is serviceable or can be made serviceable with minimal cost. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5210-5: Painting, Marking and Lighting of Vehicles Used on an Airport provides guidance on the painting, marking and lighting of ground vehicles that will operate in an air operations area.
From page 126...
... Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 139: Certification of Airports: Airports that agree to meet certain operational and safety standards as prescribed in 14 CFR Part 139, also referred to as FAR Part 139, to accommodate scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft and that are issued an operating certificate by the FAA.
From page 127...
... . The record-keeping requirements for equipment and real property acquisitions also extend beyond the 3-year time frame.
From page 128...
... : An evaluation of wildlife-related attractants and potential hazards to aircraft operations, often mandated by the FAA following a hazardous event or new potential threat. Wildlife hazard management plan (WHMP)
From page 129...
... • An air carrier aircraft experiences an engine ingestion of wildlife. • Wildlife of size and type capable of causing the events just described is observed to have access to the aircraft movement area or airport traffic pattern.
From page 130...
... and for SRM purposes, as discussed in Section 4.11: Safety Management System of this guidebook. More information on SMS in wildlife hazard management can be found in ACRP Report 145: Applying an SMS Approach to Wildlife Hazard Management.
From page 131...
... Airspace obstruction: An object, structure or element of terrain that exceeds federal obstruction standards, as defined in FAR Part 77. Substantial adverse aeronautical effect: An impact on navigable airspace that necessitates a change to an instrument approach procedure, an approach minimum, or an element of an airport or a navigational aid, or a change in a vectoring altitude, so as to meet minimum procedure or facility design standards.
From page 132...
... (b) Except for traverse ways on or near an airport with an operative ground traffic control service furnished by an airport traffic control tower or by the airport management and coordinated with the air traffic control service, the standards of paragraph (a)
From page 133...
... Those criteria and critical surfaces -- which include the airport design criteria defined by FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13: Airport Design, instrument approach procedure design criteria defined by FAA Order 8260.3D: United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) and considerations of impacts on air navigation facilities -- form the basis for the FAA's ultimate determination of an obstruction's impact on air navigation.
From page 134...
... Plan View Isometric View • Final approach segment: This is the segment of an approach procedure in which alignment and descent for landing are accomplished. The segment begins at the final approach fix and ends at the missed approach point or decision altitude, and the dimensional criteria/slope vary based on airport conditions and approach type.
From page 135...
... These standards generally align more closely with TERPS standards than FAR Part 77 to account for the new instrument approach capability using a global positioning system. Technical Resources Available to Airport Sponsors While there are a number of proprietary or custom software solutions available for procurement by airport sponsors wishing to conduct airspace analysis and obstruction evaluations on the airport's behalf, the FAA offers a number of free resources that should be referenced and used regularly by the airport sponsors, managers or staff.
From page 136...
... While Part 77 surfaces are generally sufficient for the majority of small airports, airports that have approaches with vertical guidance, are located in rapidly developing areas or have historically been subject to airspace encroachment should seek to base their obstruction management criteria on surfaces defined by threshold siting criteria and TERPS. • Conduct a thorough obstruction survey and analysis, identifying all penetrations to the surfaces that would result in operational impacts, such as the loss of an approach procedure, increase in minimums or loss of night approaches.
From page 137...
... The airport is responsible for notifying the FAA of any obstruction data discrepancies or inconsistencies, reviewing the visual area impacts using the tools provided by the FAA and protecting the facility and airspace from encroachment. The bottom line is that if detrimental obstructions promulgate at your airport, the FAA will seek to maintain flight safety by changing operations at your airport, such as increasing minimums or discontinuing instrument approach procedures, requiring threshold displacements that will limit usable runway length, etc.
From page 138...
... Per ACRP Report 1: Safety Management Systems for Airports, Volume 1: Overview and Volume 2: Guidebook, an SMS includes a management commitment to safety, proactive identification of hazards, actions taken to manage risks and an evaluation of safety actions. This management commitment is essential to the implementation of an SMS, because only through management commitment will there also be the necessary financial commitment.
From page 139...
... . ACRP Report 131: A Guidebook for Safety Risk Management for Airports provides guidance on using SRM in daily operations as well as conducting a safety risk assessment on a specific proposed action.
From page 140...
... • FAA Office of Airports Safety Management System (SMS) Desk Reference • FAA Standard Operating Procedure 4: Safety Risk Management (SRM)
From page 141...
... : Chart providing the criteria to assist airport operators in identifying the runway conditions during winter or rain events. Snow and ice control plan (SICP)
From page 142...
... Only the equipment deemed necessary in the FAA guidance is eligible for grant funding. Snow Removal Equipment FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-20: Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment provides guidance to calculate the recommended minimum type and number of SRE, including snow plows, high-speed rotary plows (snow blowers)
From page 143...
... SRE Storage Building In addition to SRE being eligible for AIP funding, buildings to store the SRE when not in use are eligible for grants. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-18: Buildings for Storage and Maintenance of Airport Snow and Ice Control Equipment and Materials provides guidance for the site selection and design of buildings used to store and maintain airport snow and ice
From page 144...
... An airport snow and ice control committee may be formed to assist with the planning and assessment of snow and ice control operations. The size and function of the committee will vary by airport size and geographical location.
From page 145...
... If an airport has an ATCT, all snow removal units operating in aircraft movement areas must maintain radio communication with the ATCT or be under the direct control of a designated supervisor, who in turn is in direct communication with the ATCT. If no tower exists, the common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF)
From page 146...
... Use displacement plows, in tandem if more than one, to windrow snow into a single windrow that can be cast over the edge of runway lights by a rotary plow. Rotary plows should throw snow a sufficient distance from runways' and taxiways' edges so adequate clearance is available between airplane wings and engine nacelles and the cast snow banks.
From page 147...
... Runway friction survey requires advance coordination because, while the tests are being conducted, the runway may be closed to airplane operations. As part of coordinating the friction surveys, an air traffic control clearance or communication on the CTAF or UNICOM when the tower is closed or there is no tower is essential for safety.
From page 148...
... 148 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports ensure that the equipment is operational throughout the snow season. Allocating budget funds to a reserve account for future acquisitions should also be considered.
From page 149...
... The airport staff should join with businesses at the airport and take advantage of any special event to promote the benefits the airport brings to the community. Examples of benefits that might be promoted are Angel Flights, economic benefits, employment numbers and opportunities, and youth educational opportunities such as the Experimental Aircraft Association's (EAA)
From page 150...
... 150 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Aeronautical events that do not involve aerobatics are less complicated but still require a high degree of planning to ensure the safety of participants, guests and the flying public. Nonaeronautical Special Events Nonaeronautical events can include car shows, distance runs, concerts, building dedications or the use of airport facilities for charitable events (dances, banquets, etc.)
From page 151...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 151 Return to Normal Operations and Event Analysis Often referred to as the cleanup phase, this phase is frequently overlooked and under-planned. The proper execution of this phase is critical for the airport's safe return to normal operations.
From page 152...
... 152 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.14 Americans with Disabilities Act Key Insights The Americans with Disabilities Act was adopted in 1990 and is codified in 42 U.S.C. Chapter 126.
From page 153...
... Application to Small Airports FAA Advisory Circular 150/5360-14: Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities provides systematic guidance specific to airport compliance with current laws and regulations regarding serving individuals with disabilities. ACRP also has several resources addressing accommodating travelers with disabilities, including ACRP Synthesis 51: Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports, ACRP Synthesis 90: Incorporating ADA and Functional Needs in Emergency Exercises, and ACRP Report 177: Enhancing Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Person with Disabilities.
From page 154...
... 154 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports should be moved to an ADA-accessible location, typically another facility of the sponsoring governmental agency. The second priority should be to take measures to provide access to the areas of the airport where goods and services are available to the public, such as adjusting the layout of display shelves, rearranging tables, providing Braille and raised-character signs, widening doors, providing visual alarms and installing ramps.
From page 155...
... unmanned aircraft systems within the United States. National Airspace System (NAS)
From page 156...
... Visual observer: A person designated by the remote pilot in command to help him or her and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. Managing UAS Operations at Small Airports Because the UAS regulatory framework and industry are quickly evolving, best practices guidance is subject to being quickly outdated while the FAA continues to refine its UAS-related regulations.
From page 157...
... 5. When flown within 5 miles of an airport, the operator of the model aircraft provides prior notice of the operation to the airport operator and the airport traffic control tower (if one is located at the airport)
From page 158...
... This is necessary, because under Part 107, a remote pilot is no longer required to be a Part 61 licensed aircraft pilot. To be licensed as a Part 107 remote pilot, a person must pass an aeronautical knowledge test -- or hold a Part 61 pilot certificate with a flight review within the last 24 months -- and complete an FAA-provided sUAS online training course.
From page 159...
... While not required for flying in Class G airspace, especially at or near an airport, it is a best practice to file a NOTAM. Remote pilots can file a NOTAM through the Flight Service website or by calling (877)
From page 160...
... Small airports that serve scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 30 seats, or serve scheduled air carrier operations in aircraft with more than 9 seats but fewer than 31 seats, are certificated by the FAA under FAR Part 139: Certification of Airports. Additional Part 139 certification information is also on the FAA's airport certification web page.
From page 161...
... The location of each obstruction required to be lighted or marked within the airport's area of authority 6. A description of each road and each movement area, including its safety areas, available for air carriers 7.
From page 162...
... 162 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 13. A plan showing the runway and taxiway identification system, including the location and inscription of signs, runway markings and holding-position markings 14.
From page 163...
... • Night inspection: Conducted to evaluate runway, taxiway and apron lighting, signage, pavement marking, airport beacon, wind-cone condition and lighting and obstruction lighting for compliance with FAR Part 139 and the ACM. A night inspection shall be conducted if air carrier operations are conducted or expected to be conducted at night or the airport has an instrument approach.
From page 164...
... 164 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.17 Customs Service Key Insights Where present, the most common type of U.S. Customs and Border Protection service at small airports is user-fee service, in which user fees should be set to cover the cost of the service.
From page 165...
... Operations -- Running a Safe, Secure and Efficient Airport 165 • The requestor (e.g., airport authority) agrees to reimburse CBP for all costs associated with the services, including the expenses of staffing a minimum of one full-time inspector.
From page 166...
... 166 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports 4.18 Joint-Use Airports Key Insights Joint use of an airport is when there are civilian and military operational components based at the airport. The federal government has the right to use airport facilities without charge, except in cases of substantial use.
From page 167...
... At joint-use airports, federal grant assurances do not apply to areas within exclusive Department of Defense control. Grants Airport Improvement Program A civilian-owned airport with joint use is still eligible for AIP grants, as described in Section 3.10: Grant and Capital Improvement Funding.
From page 168...
... 168 Guidebook for Managing Small Airports Within the AIP is a military airport set-aside. The purpose of this funding is to assist a civilian sponsor of a military airfield in the conversion and development of aviation facilities for the public.


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