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... CONTENTS 1 PREFACE 2 CHAPTER ONE OBJECTIVES 3 CHAPTER TWO BACKGROUND 5 CHAPTER THREE TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG- AND ALCOHOL-TESTING PROGRAM Reasons for Testing, 5 Drug Testing, 6 Alcohol Testing, 12 Consequences of a Drug or Alcohol Violation, 12 Substance Abuse Professional, 12 Records, 12 13 CHAPTER FOUR SPECIFIC REGULATIONS BY MODE Aviation, 13 Maritime, 14 Motor Carriers, 15 Pipeline and Hazardous Materials, 16 Public Transit, 16 Rail, 17 19 CHAPTER FIVE ALCOHOL- AND DRUG-TESTING STATISTICS Aviation, 19 Maritime, 20 Motor Carriers, 20 Pipelines, 23 Public Transit, 24 Rail, 25 Drug Positivity Rates in Different Workforces, 27 30 CHPATER SIX ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES Zero-Tolerance Policies, 30 Pre-Employment Alcohol Screening, 31 Pre-Employment Background Check, 31 Alternative Specimens, 31 Higher Random Testing Rates, 38 Longer Preduty Alcohol Abstinence Periods, 38 Consequences for Bacs 0.020–0.039, 38 Stricter Postaccident Testing, 39 Stricter Follow-Up Testing, 39 National Database, 40 Driving Record Notations, 40 41 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 44 REFERENCES

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