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Pages 21-31

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From page 21...
... Refusals were added to verified positive tests because, according to 49 CFR Part 40.261, a refusal has the same consequences as a violation, presumably because an employee who refuses does so as an attempt to hide a positive test. The positivity rates are not weighted by the stratified samples that were often used to collect the data.
From page 22...
... Marijuana was the most commonly detected drug. MOTOR CARRIERS Because the size of motor carriers can range from one employee to several thousand employees, to obtain unbiased estimates of alcohol and drug usage, the FMCSA collects data from motor carriers on the basis of stratified samples, as follows: • 1 CDL driver: select 600 carriers; • 2 to 19 CDL drivers: select 900 carriers; • 20 to 99 CDL drivers: select 450 carriers; • 100 to 249 CDL drivers: select 400 carriers; • 250 to 999 CDL drivers: select 400 carriers; • 1,000 or more CDL drivers: select all carriers.
From page 23...
... 21 TABLE 8 USCG 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of T es t R es ul ts V er ifi ed N eg at iv e T es ts V er ifi ed P os it iv e T es ts f or O ne o r M or e D ru gs P os it iv e fo r M ar ij ua na P os it iv e fo r C oc ai ne P os it iv e fo r P he nc yc li di ne P os it iv e fo r O pi at es P os it iv e fo r A m ph et am in es Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts A du lt er at ed S ub st it ut ed "S hy B la dd er " O th er R ef us al s Pre-employment 36,677 35,669 937 726 167 1 17 56 19 3 4 45 239 Random 57,526 56,860 587 361 164 6 17 58 10 5 1 63 319 Postaccident 7,290 7,181 95 63 26 1 2 3 2 2 0 10 102 Reasonable Cause 709 641 54 39 10 0 1 12 1 0 0 13 1 Return-to-Duty 443 437 5 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Follow-up 583 569 12 9 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 Total 103,228 101,357 1,690 1,203 368 8 37 132 32 10 5 134 664 TABLE 9 FMCSA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of T es t R es ul ts V er ifi ed N eg at iv e T es ts V er ifi ed P os it iv e T es ts f or O ne o r M or e D ru gs P os it iv e fo r M ar ij ua na P os it iv e fo r C oc ai ne P os it iv e fo r P he nc yc li di ne P os it iv e fo r O pi at es P os it iv e fo r A m ph et am in es Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts A du lt er at ed S ub st it ut ed "S hy B la dd er " O th er R ef us al s Pre-employment 457,511 451,008 6,077 4,161 1,514 51 154 354 36 38 75 277 1,121 Random 448,881 445,329 3,043 1,777 990 8 71 272 19 18 49 423 1,165 Postaccident 20,449 20,181 236 141 70 0 8 25 1 1 1 29 155 Reasonable Suspicion 728 605 97 43 40 1 10 11 2 0 1 23 7 Return-to-Duty 2,433 2,392 41 29 8 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 6 Follow-up 7,512 7,377 123 60 41 0 4 18 2 2 1 7 29 Total 937,514 926,892 9,617 6,211 2,663 60 248 684 60 59 127 759 2,483 FIGURE 3 USCG 2008 unweighted drug positivity rates by test type.
From page 24...
... TABLE 11 WEIGHTED YEARLY POSITIVITY RATES (%) FOR RANDOM DRUG TESTS BY DRUG TYPE Drug Category 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Any Drug 2.00 1.60 1.70 1.30 1.30 1.04 Amphetamines 0.10*
From page 25...
... Thus, usable data on random drug tests were obtained from 56% of the total company sample. Concerns about the relatively low response rate are mitigated by the sound sampling methodology, and there are no reasons to infer systematic differences between the carriers that provided usable data and carriers that did not.
From page 26...
... PUBLIC TRANSIT The FTA collects and receives data from all regulated grantees and all subrecipients from the grantees and any safetysensitive contractors who are considered to be covered employers by FTA. TABLE 15 PHMSA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of S cr ee ni ng T es t R es ul ts B A C  0 .0 20 B A C  0 .0 20 N um be r of C on fi rm ati on T es t R es ul ts C on fi rm at io n T es ts B A C 0 .0 20 –0 .0 39 C on fi rm at io n T es ts B A C  0 .0 40 Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts "S hy L un g" O th er R ef us al s Postaccident 385 385 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Reasonable Cause 85 70 15 13 0 13 0 0 0 Return-to-Duty 73 73 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Follow-up 1,265 1,250 14 12 2 8 0 1 0 Total 1,808 1,778 29 28 2 21 0 1 0 TABLE 16 FTA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of T es t R es ul ts V er ifi ed N eg at iv e T es ts V er ifi ed P os it iv e T es ts f or O ne o r M or e D ru gs P os it iv e fo r M ar ij ua na P os it iv e fo r C oc ai ne P os it iv e fo r P he nc yc li di ne P os it iv e fo r O pi at es P os it iv e fo r A m ph et am in es Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts A du lt er at ed S ub st it ut ed "S hy B la dd er " O th er R ef us al s Pre-employment 89,406 87,482 1,792 1,351 344 49 25 64 9 6 9 108 180 Random 97,546 96,742 715 448 234 4 16 31 5 4 20 60 207 Postaccident 14,630 14,450 168 87 64 1 10 12 0 0 1 11 41 Reasonable Suspicion 561 500 45 19 20 1 4 4 1 0 2 13 6 Return-to-Duty 761 747 12 10 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 Follow-up 6,154 6,071 75 29 40 0 2 5 0 0 4 4 6 Total 209,058 205,992 2,807 1,944 703 55 57 117 15 10 36 198 443 FIGURE 5 PHMSA 2008 drug and alcohol unweighted positivity rates by test type.
From page 27...
... As can be seen in Figure 7, the positivity rates for random drug tests and random alcohol tests both declined considerably over time. RAIL For 2008, the FRA collected data from all employers with 400,000 man-hours per year or more.
From page 28...
... TABLE 18 FRA 2008 DRUG TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of T es t R es ul ts V er ifi ed N eg at iv e T es ts V er ifi ed P os it iv e T es ts f or O ne o r M or e D ru gs P os it iv e fo r M ar ij ua na P os it iv e fo r C oc ai ne P os it iv e fo r P he nc yc li di ne P os it iv e fo r O pi at es P os it iv e fo r A m ph et am in es Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts A du lt er at ed S ub st it ut ed "S hy B la dd er " O th er R ef us al s Pre-employment 9,093 9,034 56 47 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 14 Random 37,585 37,412 163 97 49 0 2 19 2 2 3 3 41 Reasonable Suspicion/Cause 298 296 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Return-to-Duty 3,816 3,789 26 15 8 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 4 Follow-up 2,893 2,868 21 9 11 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 15 Total 53,685 53,399 267 168 75 1 3 25 2 2 4 11 75 TABLE 19 FRA 2008 ALCOHOL TEST RESULTS Test Reason T ot al N um be r of S cr ee ni ng T es t R es ul ts B A C  0 .0 20 B A C  0 .0 20 N um be r of C on fi rm ati on T es t R es ul ts C on fi rm at io n T es ts B A C 0 .0 20 –0 .0 39 C on fi rm at io n T es ts B A C  0 .0 40 Refusals C an ce ll ed T es ts "S hy L un g" O th er R ef us al s Pre-employment 960 959 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Random 41,782 41,648 129 128 70 58 2 3 0 Reasonable Suspicion/Cause 253 251 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 Return-to-Duty 3,751 3,736 15 15 4 11 0 0 0 Follow-up 2,514 2,476 38 37 9 28 0 0 0 Total 49,260 49,070 184 182 84 98 2 4 0 FIGURE 7 FTA annual drug and alcohol positivity rates for random tests.
From page 29...
... This training has proven to be effective. In all modes, reasonable cause tests have the highest alcohol and drug positivity rates, as shown in Table 22.
From page 30...
... Workforce 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Overall 2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60 1.50 4.50 4.40 4.40 4.20 4.20 Amphetamines 0.35 0.28 0.25 0.26 0.29 0.48 0.42 0.44 0.48 0.57 Barbiturates 0.25 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 Benzodiazepines 0.58 0.62 0.67 0.70 0.74 Cocaine 0.60 0.58 0.44 0.32 0.24 0.69 0.69 0.55 0.39 0.28 Marijuana 1.10 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.69 2.30 2.00 2.00 1.80 1.70 Methadone 0.23 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.23 Opiates 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.29 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.39 Oxycodone 0.56 0.64 0.88 0.83 1.00 Phencyclidine 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Propoxyphene 0.57 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.48 FIGURE 10 Urine drug test annual positivity rates.
From page 31...
... TABLE 22 PROBABLE CAUSE ALCOHOL AND DRUG POSITIVITY RATES (%) BY MODE Mode Positive Alcohol Rate Positive Drug Rate Aviation 47.5 19.3 Maritime 17.1 Motor Carrier 21.5 16.9 Pipelines 15.3 17.1 Public Transit 19.7 10.9 Rail 1.1 0.9


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