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Pages 32-42

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From page 32...
... TABLE 23 COMPANIES SAMPLED FOR THE STUDY Mode Companies That Responded to Initial Contact Companies That Provided Information Aviation US Airways, Inc.; Southwest Airlines Co.; Continental Airlines Continental Airlines Maritime None None Motor Carrier IWX Motor Freight; McLane Company, Inc.; Swift Transportation, Inc.; J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc.
From page 33...
... Since DHHS proposed in 2004 to establish scientific and technical guidelines for the testing of hair, sweat, and oral fluid in addition to urine, considerable efforts have been made in this area of research. Table 24 shows the DHHS proposed initial screening and confirmatory cutoffs for alternative specimens, as reported by Bush (2008)
From page 34...
... The detection time for a specific drug depends on several factors: the route of administration, the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug, the metabolism of the individual, the drug dose, and the drug test cutoff selection. Table 26 reports typical detection times of selected drugs in blood, serum, or plasma.
From page 35...
... Urine drug levels vary as a function of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug, the metabolism of the individual, the drug dose, the drug test cutoff selection, and the quantity and frequency of the voids before collecting the specimen. Detection times in the scientific literature, therefore, can vary from study to study, depending on the experimental protocol.
From page 36...
... TABLE 29 DETECTION TIMES FOR SELECTED DRUGS IN ORAL FLUID Drug Dose (mg) Route of Administration Analyte Cutoff (ng/ml)
From page 37...
... Because of the nature of hair growth, and the fact that hair is typically exposed to the environment, hair drug testing has unique sets of advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage of hair drug testing is the long window of detection of drugs, which can extend from weeks to months, depending on the rate of hair growth and the length of hair available for sampling.
From page 38...
... , for example, compared the outcome of hair and urine drug tests for cocaine in White and Black arrestees. Urine tests indicated that 35.9% of Blacks and 16.5% of Whites were positive for cocaine, for a ratio of 2.18 (35.9/16.5 = 2.18, Blacks were 2.18 times more likely to test positive than Whites)
From page 39...
... BY DRUG CATEGORY FOR URINE DRUG TESTS AND HAIR DRUG TESTS FOR THE GENERAL U.S. WORKFORCE Year Amphetamines Cocaine Marijuana Opiates Phencyclidine Urine Hair Urine Hair Urine Hair Urine Hair Urine Hair 2005 0.48 2.1 0.70 5.0 2.5 3.0 0.32 0.14 0.020 0.01 2006 0.42 1.1 0.72 4.5 2.4 3.5 0.32 0.14 0.020 0.01 2007 0.44 1.2 0.58 5.3 2.3 3.9 0.35 0.17 0.020 0.01 2008 0.48 0.86 0.41 4.2 2.1 3.4 0.38 0.14 0.020 0.00 2009 (Jan.–June)
From page 40...
... BY TYPE OF TEST FOR URINE DRUG TESTS AND HAIR DRUG TESTS FOR THE GENERAL U.S. WORKFORCE Year Pre-employment Random Urine Hair Urine Hair 2005 3.9 7.0 6.6 12.7 2006 3.9 7.2 5.5 11.0 2007 3.9 7.4 5.7 15.8 2008 3.6 6.3 5.3 9.6 2009 (Jan.–June)
From page 41...
... If any of these employees test positive again on any other drug or alcohol test, they will not be given another chance and will be permanently removed from the company. NATIONAL DATABASE As mentioned earlier, only 48% of all motor carriers have alcohol- and drug-testing programs in place, covering 89% of all commercial drivers (Khan 2010)
From page 42...
... In general, those statutes work as follows. The department responsible for the licensing of commercial drivers must place a notation on the driving record of the driver on receipt of notice of a positive result in an alcohol or drug test.


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