Skip to main content

Currently Skimming:

2 Elements of the National Plant Germplasm System
Pages 43-86

The Chapter Skim interface presents what we've algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter.
Select key terms on the right to highlight them within pages of the chapter.


From page 43...
... In 1974, following the reorganization, germplasm activities were grouped into the National Plant Germplasm System to provide an umbrella system for germplasm acquisition, preservation, preliminary evaluation, and distribution. With the ARS holding lead administrative responsibility, 43
From page 44...
... Closely allied to this office are plant exploration activities and the health and quarantine of imported plant materials. Accession documentation begins when the PIO records passport data that accompanies new accessions for entry into the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
From page 45...
... , Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin Urbana, Illinois Stoneville, Mississippi College Station, Texas Common bean, garlic, Allium (onion) species, lupine, safflower, chickpea, wild rye, lettuce, lentil, alfalfa, forage grasses, horsebean, common vetch, milkvetch Sweet potato, sorghum, peanut, pigeon pea, forage grasses, forage legumes, cowpea, mung bean, peppers, okra, melons, sesame, eggplant Tomato, birdsfoot trefoil, pea, clover, brassicas, onion Maize, amaranth, oil-seed brassicas (e.g., rape, canola, mustard)
From page 46...
... 46 / The U.S National Plant Germplasm System ACQUISITION Plant Introduction Office Germplasm Resources Information Network National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center CONSERVATION Regional plant introduction stations National Small Grains Collection National clonal germplasm repositories Interregional Research Project' IR- 1 Crop collections Genetic stock collections National Arboretum National Seed Storage Laboratory Germplasm Resources Information Network MANAGEMENT Regional plant introduction stations National Small Grains Collection National clonal germplasm repositories Interregional Research Project, JR-1 Crop collections Genetic stock collections National Arboretum National Seed Storage Laboratory Plant Introduction Office Germplasm Resources Information Network UTILIZATION Scientists in colleges, universities, the federal government, and private industry International exchange Germplasm Resources Information Network FIGURE 2-1 The division of responsibilities for germplasm management in the United States as they are coordinated through the National Plant Germplasm System.
From page 47...
... For example, groups such as the Seed Savers Exchange maintain heirloom or older varieties of vegetables, fruit, and flowers and distribute them primarily to individuals for personal use rather than for breeding new cultivars (Office of Technology Assessment, 1985; Shell, 1990~. Their holdings are generally not part of NPGS collections and are not documented by it.
From page 48...
... by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plant lines, and even genetic stocks that are registered by public and private plant breeders.
From page 49...
... , or in cooperation with botanical gardens or arboreta. These activities The grasses native to the Altai region of the south central Soviet Union are surveyed as part of an effort to collect wild rye species for U.S.
From page 50...
... Exploration can also be accomplished through cooperation with individuals or organizations outside the United States. The NPGS occasionally cooperates with the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR)
From page 51...
... For perennial woody plants, and some selected herbaceous species, which are usually propagated asexually, there are no back-up or base collections, and the national clonal germplasm repositories serve as the sites for both active and back-up collections. Active Collections The central elements for managing and maintaining the germplasm of the NPGS are the many active collections throughout the United States.
From page 52...
... These are the North-Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa; the Northeast Regional Plant Introduction Station, Geneva, New York; the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman, Washington; and the Southern Regional Plant Introduction Station, Griffin, Georgia (Table 2-3~. They are operated jointly by the ARS and state agricultural experiment stations through the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS)
From page 53...
... The station at Miami, Florida, was responsible for subtropical crops, particularly fruits, rubber, cacao, and coffee. One of the earliest introduction stations, it has now become one of the clonal germplasm repositories and continues to maintain its earlier collections.
From page 55...
... 55 o o ~ o o o ~ o ~ Go oo ~ o oo ~ o 1 o o ~ o o o ~ o D O L~ o ~ o ~D ~ C~ O o C~ o C~ Lr)
From page 56...
... 56 oo oo cn · 50 o ._ cn o ~n o o .~ z V)
From page 57...
... The repositories are charged with developing active global collections of appropriate wild species and domestic cultivars, and to assemble a maximum level of genetic diversity possible for each genus and species for which they are responsible. They also conduct research to improve evaluation, propagation, characterization, and preservation of clonal Germplasm (National Plant Germplasm Committee, 1986~.
From page 58...
... By establishing the national clonal germplasm repositories, a mechanism for stable, long-term maintenance for many important clonally propagated species has been provided. Interregional Research Project-1 The Interregional Research Project-1 (IR-1)
From page 59...
... b Primarily special genetic stocks. c A breeder's collection that is largely duplicated at a regional station.
From page 60...
... . .\ ~lSSlSSlppl Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island 13 6 3 2 9 4 3 4 4 13 17 6 2 1 24 11 17 3 10 9 8 5 7 6 4 1 7 24 13 8 1 13 ~ 3 O O 10 8 3 6 4 19 19 12 19 5 10 6 2 7 5 2 o 13 5 10 0 2 o 4 5 22 14 10 24 13 19 2 1 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 8 1 0 0 o 4 5 3 2 10 12 18 28 5 16 NR NR 35 7 12 24 19 10 9 21 13 NR 10 16 8 11 NR NR 6 7 6 15 14 9 9 9 9 4 8 11 3 10 8 o 3 1 2 14 5 24 2 4 3 2 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 17 3 3 14 6 2 4 4 10 16 14 7 5 2 o NR NR NR 12 3 2 7 2 5 3 6 NR NR 21 3 5 4 16 13 2 8 5 12 12 10 4 6 3 NR NR
From page 61...
... 7 6 2 NR 6 4 11 9 2 2 8 7 4 1 2 3 2 75 51 ~ 1 ~ 18 12 41 3 2 2 NR 2 NR NR NR o 3 3 7 o 24 12 2 403 200 o o 8 o 121 NR 4 11 o 25 o 424 39 2 NR 14 o 384 SOURCE: Based on responses to a 1988 questionnaire distributed by the University of California Genetic Resources Conservation Program to plant science departments (including plant pathology, genetics, and agronomy, but not forestry) that were associated with state agricultural experiment stations.
From page 62...
... The importance of genetic stock collections to crop development is well illustrated by the Charles M Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at the University of California at Davis (Genetic Resources Conservation Program, 1988~.
From page 63...
... esculentum var. cerasiforme, L
From page 64...
... It cooperates closely with NPGS on an informal basis. An ARS plant germplasm staff person at the arboretum has the primary responsibility of developing a germplasm collection of woody landscape species.
From page 65...
... Base Collections Some NPGS genetic resources are also held in base collections in long-term storage as a reserve to the active collections. If samples in active collections are no longer available or cannot be regenerated, the germplasm held in the base collection can be used to replace them.
From page 66...
... of seeds, pollen, in vitro cultures, or dormant buds, in the case of clonal germplasm. National Seed Storage Laboratory The NSSL is the principal site of long-term seed storage of genetic resources in the United States (see Table 2-3~.
From page 67...
... Seed samples of plant varieties protected under the Plant Variety Protection Act are also held by the NSSL. Selected collections of the national system have been designated by the IBPGR as part of its international network of base collections (Table 2-9~.
From page 68...
... The NPGS deposits duplicates of its barley and oat collections with the National Plant Gene Conservation Center in Ottawa, Canada, and is seeking arrangements with other nations to hold backups of other collections (H.
From page 69...
... Until such facilities are completed, space will continue to be a major constraint on NSSL activities. Vegetatively Propagated Germplasm Germplasm held by the national clonal germplasm repositories and the JR-1 is not often stored in base collections as seed.
From page 70...
... Rome, Italy: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. are no back-up or base collections of clonally propagated species, although clonal repositories typically maintain duplicates of field-grown accessions in screenhouses or greenhouses.
From page 71...
... Department of Agriculture, National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Hilo, Hawaii.
From page 72...
... of seed and clonal germplasm, and distribution. Seed Viability Testing Germplasm maintained as seed must be tested regularly to monitor viability.
From page 73...
... For a few accessions, such as some chromosomally aberrant genetic stocks, a lower standard may be appropriate because of their inherently low seed viability, even in freshly grown seed. Current viability data from the NSSL are based on a germination rate of 65 percent.
From page 74...
... 74 O U ˘ ~ moo ˘ ~4 o cry Us o ._ z U)
From page 75...
... Seed regeneration or increase is normally the responsibility of those holding active collections, such as the regional stations, but it may be requested either from the scientist who contributed the materials Germplasm accessions of chickpea, lentils, and broad bean are grown to produce fresh seed at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station. Credit: U.S.
From page 76...
... No procedure ensures that samples returned from regeneration have the same genetic composition as those that were sent out. New techniques, such as the comparison of gene frequencies before and after regeneration using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, or older technologies such as electrophoretic analysis of seed proteins, could provide some measure of assurance.
From page 77...
... 77 o .~ At o cn as · o ·v)
From page 78...
... A considerable amount of germplasm, particularly genetic stocks and breeding lines, is directly exchanged between scientists. The PIO coordinates most of the international transfer of germplasm by the national system.
From page 79...
... In 1977 ARS recommended setting up a central repository for genetic resources information with standardized crop descriptors that would improve the management of NPGS collections (Mowder and Stoner, 1989~. The Germplasm Resources Information Network manages all of the data associated with acquisition, evaluation, regeneration, inventory, and other records of the NPGS collections.
From page 80...
... Many public institutions are involved in germplasm enhancement. State agricultural experiment stations, public and private colleges and universities, and private industry use NPGS collections for breeding and enhancement to produce improved parental materials.
From page 81...
... Scientists in public and private colleges and universities have contributed to genetic resources activities, including plant exploration, evaluation, and regeneration. For some investigators, the USDA has provided funds for specific research tasks.
From page 82...
... Many of their collections were incorporated into USDA SORGHUM PI 264453 Sorghum bicolor Moench GRIN Data Origin: Spain Acquisition: Spain PI assigned: 1960 Maintenance site: Southern Regional Plant Introduction Station Greenbug damage can be compared on sorghum It may fairly be asked hybrids (left) with and (right)
From page 83...
... Recognition of the national importance of research on genetic resources has led to greater USDA-ARS support of at least some of these programs and scientists. There must be broader opportunities for the NPGS to harness the expertise of scientists in colleges and univer.
From page 84...
... genetic resources conservation and development. PLANT GERMPLASM ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL SYSTEM Botanical Gardens and Arboreta to meet local Botanical gardens and arboreta are primarily intended needs.
From page 85...
... The SSE is one of the largest and most active nongovernmental groups that preserve plant genetic resources. It is based on a small farm in rural Iowa and depends on individuals who maintain seeds of numerous obsolete heirloom varieties of vegetables and crops.
From page 86...
... Recent interests in specialty vegetables has raised awareness of many older varieties and led to their commercial use. The genetic resources maintained by many of these collections are at risk and are not always readily available for research purposes.


This material may be derived from roughly machine-read images, and so is provided only to facilitate research.
More information on Chapter Skim is available.