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From page 28...
... Introduction This section of the guide contains detailed content outlines of the subjects covered in the recommended modules (Part II)
From page 29...
... 1.~.1.4 Research institutions to which Awns are applicable: All research facilities that use or intend to use live animals (as defined by the regulations; see 1.1.1.5) in research, testing, and education 1.1.1.5 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 1: Demotion of Terms Amended regulations became effective October 30, 1989 Includes in the definition of animal any warmblooded animal used or intended for use in research, testing, or education except birds; rats of the genus Rattus and mice of the genus Mus bred for use in Because regulations change periodically, it is recommended that the current Code of Federal Regulations be consulted before presenting regulatory material.
From page 30...
... Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS, 1986) 1.1.2.1 Description Intended to ensure that PHS grantees and contractors care for and use animals humanely
From page 31...
... 1.1.2.4 Activities to which policy is applicable: All PHS-conducted or sup ported activities involving the use of animals; an animal is defined as "any live, vertebrate animal used or intended for use in research, research training, experimentation, or biological testing or for related purposes" 1.~.2.5 Requirements Compliance with the AWRs and the Guide for the Care and Use of [laboratory Animals, which was revised most recently in 1985 (NRC, 1985) A written statement of Assurance, including A description of the animal care and use program The qualifications, authority, and responsibility of the program's veterinarians A list of members of the institutional animal care and use comm~ttee and procedures these members will follow to fulfill the requirements of PHS policy A summary description of the institution's educational or training programs in humane animal care and use An assurrance that the institution is accredited by the American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care or has been evaluated by the institution 1.1.2.6 Penalty for noncompliance: Revocation of Assurance and loss of PHS support for entire institution 1.1.3 Good Laboratory Practice (GLJP)
From page 32...
... and 42 USC 351, 354-360F (Public Health Service Am) ..3.2 Main concern is with reliability of research results ..3.3 Subpart C of each of the GEPs Requires separate rooms or areas for separation of species, isolation of individual projects, quarantine, and routine or specialized housing Requires, as appropriate, separate rooms or areas for diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases Requires, as needed, storage areas for feed, bedding, supplies, and equipment 1.1.3.4 Subpart E of each of the GEPs Requires written standard operating procedures for housing, feeding, handling, and care of animals Requires appropriate identification of animals - 21 CFR 58.90, was amended effective May 22, 1989 - Amendment prohibits toe clipping as a means of identification Requires extensive recordkeeping on the environment of the animal rooms 1.2 Selected Requirements of AWRs and PHS Policy 1.2.1 Institutional animal care and use committee (lACUC)
From page 33...
... Must be made available to all personnel involved in the care, treatment, and use of species covered by the AWRs and PHS policy 1.2.2.2 Must include at least the following areas Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation Methods that limit the use of animals or minimize distress Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers for any species used by the facility Methods for reporting deficiencies in care and treatment Utilization of services, such as the National Agncultural Library, that provide information that could prevent unintended or unnecessary duplication of animal research and details about appropriate methods of animal care and use, alternatives to the use of live animals in research, and the intent and requirements of the Animal Welfare Act 1.2.3 Records that facilities must keep 1.2.3.1 Records of the lACUC Minutes of meetings Records of applications Proposed significant changes in animal care and use and whether approval was given or withheld Semiannual reports 1.2.3.2 Records on the description, identification, purchase, sale, transportation, and previous ownership of live dogs and cats (AWRs) 1.2.3.3 Records of accrediting body determinations (PHS policy)
From page 34...
... 1.4 Institutional Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education 1.4.1 Policies that affect research protocols 1.4.2 Poligy on dealing with alleged misconduct REFERENCES APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service)
From page 35...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 36...
... 2.1.2 Applied ethics: Ethical reflection, as defined above, applied to a specific area of concern, e.g., the use of laboratory animals 2.2 Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decisions (Robb, 1989) 2.2.1 A framework provides a method or formal structure for making decisions 2.2.2 Utilitarian or teleological ethical approach to decision making 2.2.2.1 Involves risk/benefit analysis; the best action is determined by the effects of the action in a particular circumstance or on the effects on all concerned (the social utility of the action)
From page 37...
... 2.4.1 Animals are intelligent and sentient beings, with feelings not too unlike our own 2.4.2 Animals have inherent value and have a right to fulfill their destiny as independent beings 2.4.3 As independent beings, they are "subjects-of-a-life," that is, they have desires and intentions that should be respected 2.4.4 Therefore, humankind has no right to exploit them for human purposes because this violates their integrity as separate species The Role of Laws, Regulations, and Policies 2.5.1 Function to prescribe common standards that prevent the abuse of humane standards for the care of animals 2.5.2 Recent policies and guidelines have refined earlier standards and have had a salutary effect on the well-being of laboratory animals Suggested Ethical Principles (See U.S. Govermnent Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training; Appendix I)
From page 38...
... A report of the Commission on Life Sciences and Institute of Medicine Committee on the Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, D.C.: NationalAcademy Press.
From page 39...
... Principal investigators must consider alternatives to any procedure likely to produce pain or distress Assurance that alternatives have been considered must be presented in the institution's annual report and when the institution is inspected by the USDA Training must be provided by the institution on research or testing methods that minimize or eliminate the use of animals or limit their pain or distress The National Agricultural Library, in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine, must provide information that could prevent 39
From page 40...
... 3.3 Nonan~mal Research Methods and Models 3.3.! Literature Search 3.3.~.1 Can be used to avoid unnecessary duplication of research 3.3.~.2 Can provide a scientific basis for choice of model 3.3.2 Epidemiological Research: Can be used to understand the frequency, distribution, and cause of disease, both infectious and noninfectious' in a given population 3.3.3 Human Subject Research: If morally and legally acceptable, safe, noninvasive methods to test human subjects can replace the use of animals 3.3.4 Cell, tissue, and organ culture systems: Systems derived from humans or
From page 41...
... 1.3 Simplicitr: Simpler models usually provide fewer variables than a whole human or animal and reduce the complexity that can obsure under standing of a specific process 3.4.~.4 Accessibility: Models must be readily available to the research community and permit manipulation using contemporary technology 3.4.2 Ethical considerations 3.4.2.! Safety of research personnel and human subjects 3.4.2.2 Conservation of species 3.4.2.3 Humane care and use of animals 3.4.3 Economic considerations 3.4.3.!
From page 42...
... 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 43...
... 4.~.~.3 Animal resource director, if different from the attending veterinarian 4.~.~.4 Attending veterinarian (see 9 CFR 1.l, 2.33) 4.~.~.5 Facility manager: Clarify reporting relationship to institutional official and/or animal resource director 4.~.~.6 Principal investigator 4.~.~.7 Research staff 4.~.~.S Others, as appropriate to the institution 4.~.2 Establishes and disseminates institutional policy 4.~.2.l Policy on care and use of animals: Discuss the institution's commitment to An enviromnent conducive to high-quality research, humane treatment of animals, and safety of personnel Compliance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and e po 1cles 4~.2.2 Poligy for dealing with alleged misconduct 4.~.3 Provides appropriate facilities for animal housing and care 4.~.4 Guarantees sufficient sources of resources to support key personnel and facilities 4.~.5 Appoints the members of the institutional animal care and use committee (see also I.2.~)
From page 44...
... Procedures must comply with the requirement to avoid or my ze pain, discomfort, and distress Principal investigators must have considered alternatives to procedures that could cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress Principal investigators must provide written assurance that the activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments Procedures that watt cause more than momentary or slight pain and distress: - Must be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesics, or anesthetics unless withholding such agents is justified scientifically - Must involve consultation with the attending veterinarian - Must not include the use of paralytics without anesthesia Animals that will experience severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved must be painlessly killed at the end of the procedure or, if it will not interfere with research results, during the procedure Living conditions must be appropriate for the species of animal and contribute to the health and comfort of the animals Sick animals must receive appropriate medical care provided by a qualified veterinarian Personnel conducting procedures on animals must be appropriately qualified and trained in these procedures All survival surgery must be performed using aseptic procedures, and .
From page 45...
... 4.3.1 Designs experiments 4.3.~.1 Selects the appropriate species, model, animal quality, and source; consults with a statistician to determine the niinimum number of animals required for valid data analysis 4.3.~.2 Considers previous work done in the area of study, using resources such as databases of the National Agricultural Library and National Library of Medicine Considers possible alternatives to living animals as subjects Ensures that studies will not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments 4.3.~.3 Establishes procedures and environments that minimize internal and
From page 46...
... 4.3.4.] Identifies activities and procedures that might be stressful to personnel, including euthanasia, long-term studies, and studies using animals generally regarded as pets 4.3.4.2 Provides opportunities for stress-reduction training for all employees involved in high-stress activities 4.3.4.3 Gives particular attention to reducing stress in inexperienced, naive, and highly emotional employees before and during studies 4.3.5 Maintains a scholarly, sensitive, and respectful environment and behaves in a professional manner 4.3.6 Endeavors to build public confidence in animal research 4.3.6.1 Provides a lay-language description of studies and procedures for the IACUC and for other institutional purposes 4.3.6.2 Might participate in community programs to promote understanding of the need for and role of animals in research, testing, and teaching
From page 47...
... 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 48...
... (AVMA' 1986) ~ The term nociceptive is derived from Latin words meaning Hurtful stimulus"' Noxious stimuli damage or destroy tissue or have the potential to do so ~t -^ ~ _ 48
From page 49...
... 5.3.1.2 Pain tolerance Limit of tolerance to noxious stimuli Varies between individuals and between species 5.3.2 Duration 5.3.2.1 Acute pain Short duration Occurs after injury or early in illness Plays protective role, warning the body about injury 5.3.2.2 Chronic pain Longer duration than acute pain Does not serve protective role 5.3.3 Pain is perceived only if the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures are functional; it is not perceived if these strictures are rendered nonfunctional (e.g., by hypoxia, drugs, electrical shock, concussion, surgical intervention) 5.3.4 Pain can be perceived even though noxious stimuli do not elicit body move ments (e.g., if a muscle-paralyzing drug such as succinylcholine is administered)
From page 50...
... into the laboratory an~mal's environment may teach it to adapt more easily to changes that may occasionally occur 5.5.~.3 Acute stress response Generally of shorter duration tears maladaptive stress (distress) responses Causes aWpical but not maladaptive behavior under the circumstances (e.g., chairing an unadapted nonhuman primate)
From page 51...
... 5.8.4 Potentially painful and distressful procedures must be planned in consultation with the attending veterinarian (9 CFR 2.31) 5.8.5 Neuromuscular blocking agents (paralytics)
From page 52...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 53...
... Have strong analgesic properties in some species When used alone, procedures are usually limited to minor surgery Most effective when combined with tranquilizers and sedatives (e.g., xylazine, acety~promazine maleate, diazepam) The report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Pam and Distress In Laboratory Animals entitled Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, which is in press, will provide details on Mug actions, drug doses, and species variability.
From page 54...
... 54 EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN CARE AND USE OF LAB ANIMALS Produce seizures and clonic tonic muscle contractions in some species 6.1.4 Pretreatment of patient 6.~.4.1 Anticholinergics such as atropine reduce salivation and bradycardia 6.1.4.2 Tranquilizers such as ace~cylpromazine calm the animal and facilitate restraint 6.1.4.3 Sedatives such as ~ylazine depress the CNS 6.1.5 Dosage principles for general anesthesia 6.1.5.1 Evaluate the physical condition of the animal to ensure the absence of any disease condition that might compromise the animal's health during anesthesia 6.1.5.2 Administer to effect 6.1.5.3 Calculate dose by body weight, taking animal's age into account 6.1.5.4 Allow for variations in response to agent between species and between individuals of the same species because of differences that can occur in absorption and biotransformation 6.1.5.5 Pretreat with tranquilizers or sedatives, when appropriate, to decrease the amount of anesthetic needed 6.1.6 General Considerations 6.1.6.1 When possible, a new anesthetic regimen should be tested in a limited number of animals before depending on it for surgical or other painful procedures in a research protocol 6.1.6.2 The health of animal should be considered in selecting an anesthetic 6.~.6.3 The level of CNS depression should be the minimum that is necessary to perform the procedure, compatible with the animal's welfare 6.~.6.4 The effect of anesthesia on the validity of experimental results and the interaction of anesthesia with other drugs in the experimental protocol must be considered 6.~.6.5 Basic equipment to ensure adequate ventilation should be available 6.~.6.6 Body heat must be conserved, especially in small and young animals 6.~.6.7 Whenever possible, a warm, balanced electrolyte solution should be administered by intravenous drip throughout the surgical procedure to help maintain normal hemodynamics 6.~.6.8 The anesthetist is responsibile for the animal's welfare until the animal has normal cardiopulmonary function and is able to maintain itself in sternal recumbency 6.~.6.9 Consideration must be given to the safety of personnel in the area where anesthetic gases will be administered and, if necessary, a gasscavenging system must be provided 6.~.7 Stages of general anesthesia 6.1.7.1 Stage I Stage of analgesia or voluntary movement Duration: From onset of administration to loss of consciousness
From page 55...
... 6.~.~.3 Monitor heart rate Sowing indicates anesthesia an increase in rate during the procedure often indicates that the depth of anesthesia is not adequate and the animal is feeling pain) 6.~.~.4 Monitor body temperature and maintain at normal levels (temperature falls in anesthesia, especially in small species)
From page 56...
... ~ ~ ~ A fit_ _ ~ , ~ . ~ o.~.~.~ 1n1az1ne aenvatlves te.g., xylaz1ne, 6.2.6 Tranquilizer and sedative effects 6.2.6.1 Phenothiazines Make animals more tractable Cause hypotension Minimally reduce respiratory rate 6.2.6.2 Bu~rophenones Make animals indifferent to their surroundings Decrease motor activity Cause hypotension Slightly increase respiratory rate 6.2.6.3 Benzodiazepines Cause CNS depression Have mild cardiovascular depressant effects at low doses Have little effect on respiration 6.2.6.4 Thiazine derivatives (e.g., xylazine)
From page 57...
... Major effects on the CNS . Effects include analgesia, sedation, respiratory depression, decreased gastrointestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, and alterations of endo cnne and autonomic nervous system functions Act as agonists, interacting with binding sites or receptors in the brain and other tissues Actions of some compounds have not been determined for some laboratory animals Dose may vary significantly between species 6.3.4.2 Antagonists: Drugs (e.g., naloxone)
From page 58...
... 6.3.6.1 ~ Drugs such as pheny~butazone, acetaminophen, and aspirin can be useful in special cases 6.3.6.2 Aspirin Most effective for relief of muscular pain Minimal effect for relief of visceral pain 6.4 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Paralv~ics or Immobilizing Agents) O O ~ , _ ~ i, a, 6.4.1 Definition: Drugs that reduce muscle tone without the loss of consciousness by acting on the neuromuscular junction (e.g., pancuronium)
From page 59...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 60...
... 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 61...
... 7.2 Legal Requirements (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986) 7.2.1 Surgery must be performed or directly supervised by trained, experienced personnel 7.2.2 Procedures that will cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress must be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesics, or anesthetics, unless withholding such agents is justified for scientific reasons and that justification is provided to the institutional animal care and use committee (lACUC)
From page 62...
... 7.2.4.2 PHS policy requires compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, which recorrlmends that survival surgery on rodents be conducted using sterile instruments, surgical gloves, and aseptic procedure (NRC, 1985; PHS, 1986) 7.2.4.3 Major surgical procedures on nonrodents must be conducted only in facilities that are intended for that purpose and are maintained under aseptic conditions (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
From page 63...
... 7.5.~.1 Effects Can cause a fall in blood pressure due to decreased cardiac output; however, peripheral resistance increases Occasionally causes a severe drop in blood pressure due to depression of the sinoatnal node and bundle of His Can cause ventricular fibrillation, most frequently when the temperature of the heart muscle is below 28C In dogs, a fall in in body temperature to between 23C and 15C can cause a cardiac crisis characterized by cessation of sinus rhythm, intense bradycardia, ventricular extrasystoles, and ventricular fibrilIation or standstill Prolongs clotting time 7.5.~.2 Occurrence Sooner in small rodents and rabbits than in larger animals - Small animals have a greater ratio of body surface to body mass than do larger animals - Small animals have efficient heat-dissipation surfaces in the ears (rabbits) or in the ears, feet, and tad]
From page 64...
... 7.6.1 Closure 7.6.1.1 T o facilitate wound healing, it is important to match both needle size and suture material type and size to the procedure 7.6.1.2 Multiple layers of sutures placed in an interrupted pattern are preferred to a continuous pattern to minimize the risk of dehiscense 7.6.1.3 A subcuticular suture pattern is advantageous for skin closure in animals that are inclined to chew or otherwise remove stitches 7.6.1.4 K nots used to join the ends of suture material must be tied correctly and securely to prevent spontaneous loosening during the healing process 7.6.1.5 Metal clips can be used in lieu of sutures to close skin incisions in thin skinned animals 7.6.2 Dehiscense 7.6.2.1 Causes Sutures improperly placed Knots improperly tied Healing compromised by bacterial infection 7.6.2.2 Prevention: Use of good surgical techniques
From page 65...
... should be available to support respiration when the animal's system is compromised, and the animal is unable to breathe normally 7.~6 A cardiac monitor is essential for evaluating heart rate and pattern 7.~.7 An electronic thermometer is helpful for monitoring body temperature
From page 66...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 67...
... ; or 8.2.2.2 If method deviates from AVMA recommendations, the deviation must be justified scientifically and approved by the institutional animal care and use committee (lACUC) 8.2.3 Animals that would otherwise experience severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved will be painlessly killed at the end of the procedure, or if appropriate, during the'procedure (9 CFR 2.31; PHS, 1986)
From page 68...
... 8.3.2.1 Moribund animals: An acceptable endpoint should be determined, consistent with sound research design, so that suffering is not prolonged 8.3.2.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.3.5 unnecessarily Animals with solid tumors should be killed when The size of the tumor interferes with normal behavior such as eating, drinking, and freedom of movement The tumor ulcerates or develops necrotic areas Clinical signs such as weight loss, lethargy, and inappetence appear (for tumors that are not palpable) Euthanasia-associated pain and distress should be prevented or minimized in nervous or intractable animals by skillful handling or by the administration of tranquilizers, sedatives, or analgesic drugs A person performing euthanasia should demonstrate professionalism and sensitivity for the value of animal life Death should be confirmed by checking for the absence of a heartbeat; the absence of respiration does not always indicate death 8.4 Human Considerations 8.4.1 Euthanasia is often a stressor to the person performing the procedure 8.4.~.1 To many people, the taking of an animal's life is an awesome task 8.4.~.2 The degree of distress experienced by those people observing or performing euthanasia or death in any form is dependent on their backgrounds and on their personal philosophies and ethical concerns about using animals in research (Arluke, 1988)
From page 69...
... Newborn animals are accustomed to low oxygen and are more resistant to inhalant agents
From page 70...
... - Inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonexplosive - Presents minimal hazard to personnel when used with properly designed equipment Causes no accumulation of chemical residues in tissues Does not distort cellular architecture Is effective for small laboratory animals (e.g., rodents; small or young dogs, cats, and swine; poultry Disadvantages
From page 71...
... Disadvantage: Must be used under supervision of personnel registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency S.6.2.3 ChIoral hydrate: Not recommended for use by itself Mode of action: CNS depression Disadvantage: Causes aesthetically objectionable animal movements; therefore, is not recommended for dogs, cats, or other small animals 8.6.3 Drugs that should never be used alone for euthanasia 8.6.3.1 Magnesium sulfate: Lacks analgesic or anesthetic effects
From page 72...
... to ensure death 8.7.4.3 Difficult to ensure consistency of effect in rabbits, rodents, and other small laboratory animals 8.7.4.4 Should be evaluated by the IACUC on a case-by-case basis
From page 73...
... To be used only for animals weighing 40 gms or less because larger animals are not rendered unconscious rapidly 8.7.10.2 Requires well-trained personnel and appropriate equipment 8.7.10.3 Advantage: Instantaneously inactivates and fixes enzymes in brain tissue S.7.11 Air embolism: Not recommended for routine use 8.7.~.1 Intravenous injection of 5 to 50 mI/kg of air induces rapid death in rabbits 8.7.~.2 Acceptable method only when animals are anesthetized 8.7.12 Physical methods not recommended for use S.7.12.! Decompression (hypoxia)
From page 74...
... 1986. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 75...
... 9.~.~.2 PHS Policy: All live vertebrates used in PHS-conducted or supported activities 9.~.~.3 State and local laws, as applicable 9.~.2 Scope of Coverage 9.~.2.1 Facilities and operating procedures in facilities, including temperature and humidity, lighting, cage construction and maintenance, cage size, and waste disposal 9.~.2.2 Animal health and husbandry, including feeding, watering, sanitation, staffing, classification and separation, and veterinary care 9.1.2.3 Transportation, including construction, size, and ventilation of transportation cage; identification of animals; and care in transit 9.2 Importance of Proper Husbandry and a Stable Environment 9.2.1 Improves validity and reliability of experimental data 9.2.2 Conserves research resources 9.2.2.! Reduces number of animals necessary 9.2.2.2 Reduces time required to complete experiments 9.2.2.3 Reduces cost 75
From page 76...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
From page 77...
... Rodents 10.~.~.] Types of stocks Inbred: Each animal of the strain is virtually genetically identical to all the others of that strain Hybrid: The first generation offspring of two inbred strains; known genetic background, but heterozygous at most loci Mutant: Each animal carries an inherited trait or a combination of traits that allows the study of a specific biologic process or disease Outbred: Genetics unknown; very heterogeneous Other specialized stocks (e.g., transgenic animals)
From page 78...
... or barrier maintained: An animal free of a specified list of pathogens; proper usage of the term requires that the absence of the specified pathogens be supported by current test results from a battery of tests appropriate for those pathogens Virus antibody free: An animal free of antibodies to viral pathogens; proper usage requires that the absence of viral pathogens be supported by current test results from a battery of appropriate serologic tests Clean conventional: An animal housed in a low-security barrier and demonstrated to be free of major pathogens Conventional: An animal whose microbial burden is not known and not controlled; the animal is generally housed in open rooms with unrestricted access Animal resource policy
From page 79...
... Information on sources of animals 10.2.~.1 Institutional animal resource 10.2.~.2 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 10.2.~.3 Primate Information Clearing House 10.2.2 Requirements for purchasing animals 10.2.2.! Legal requirements Dogs and cats Threatened or endangered species Institutional requirements Requirement for purchasing only from USDA-licensed dealers, if applicable Microbiologic status Health records Quarantine and stabilization 10.3 Caging 10.3.1 Types of caging regularly available in the institution 10.3.~.!
From page 80...
... 80 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.5 Food 10.5.1 EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN CARE AND USE OF LAB ANIMALS 10.3.1.2 Maximum population density permitted Size of individuals Age of individuals Aggressive animals 10.3.2 Special caging 10.3.2.1 Metabolic 10.3.2.2 Intensive care or therapy 10.3.2.3 Special construction 10.4 Environmental Enrichment 10.4.1 Legal requirements 10.4.~.1 Dogs 10.4.1.2 Nonhuman primates Institutional policies Group housing and socialization Special equipment Physiologic and metabolic signs of overcrowding - Increased corticosterone levels - Loss of fertility Behavioral effects of overcrowding Aggression Cannibalism Self-mutilation Advantages and disadvantages of food-delivery methods available 10.5.~.l Appropriateness for age of animal 10.5.~.2 Appropriateness for health status of animal 10.5.~.3 Adequate availability for all individuals in a social group (subordi nates are not food deprived) 10.5.2 Nutrition 10.5.2.1 Supplementation of standard diets available 10.5.2.2 Diet control Batch date Frequent content assessment 10.5.2.3 Special dietary needs Unusual amounts of food, such as for pregnant and nursing animals Special types of food Caloric restriction 10.5.2.4 Availability and sources of experimental diets 10.5.3 Delivery of experimental agents 10.5.4 Food deprivation carried out under approved experimental protocol 10.6 Water 10.6.1 Advantantages and disadvantages of available water delivery methods
From page 81...
... PHS policy (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals)
From page 82...
... , anorexia, ptyalism, rectal prolapse, pendulous abdomen Respiratory: Dyspnea, abnormal respiratory sounds, nasal and ocular discharges Urinary: Polydipsia, excessive or reduced volume, content or color abnormalities, unusual odor, straining to urinate Neuromuscular and skeletal: Paresis or paralysis, seizures, torticollis, incoordination, lameness Reproductive: Infertility, abortions, discharges, still births, litter desertion, orchitis, mastitis Miscellaneous: Unexpected deaths, loss of appendages, weight loss, anemia, eye lesions 10.9.3.2 Physiologic signs Blood: Anemia; cell size, count, or type Urinary: Abnormalities in specific gravity, color, content, chemistry, volume, odor Decreased or elevated body temperature, pulse or respiratory rate Miscellaneous: Changes in synovial or cerebrospinal fluids, nerve impulse transmission, bone density, liver and pancreatic function, endocrine function, mineral and pH balance 10.9.3.3 Behavioral signs Inappetance High or low levels of activity
From page 83...
... neoplasia, nephrosis, sialodacryoadeniitis, chromodacryorrhea, moist dermatitis Guinea pigs: Pneumonia, enteropathies, dermatophytosis, hypovitaminosis C, premolar malocclusion, mastitis, pregnancy toxemia, pediculosis, urolithiasis, limb fractures Hamsters: Demodecosis, reread amyloidosis, limb fractures, enteropathies, cutaneous and adrenal neoplasia 10.9.4.2 Rabbits: Otic acariasis, coccidiosis, enteropathies, malocclusion, lumbar fracture, moist dermatitis, pasteurellosis, ulcerative podo dermatitis 10.9.4.3 Dogs: Bordetella infection; distemper; parvovirus infection; herpes virus infection; heartworms; intestinal and cutaneous parasitism; hepatitis, adenovirus, and parainfluenza infections; neoplasia Cats: Infectious peritonitis, panIeukopenia, respiratory disorders, toxoplasmosis, parasitism, leukemia, urologic syndrome, otic ~ acarlasls Nonhuman primates: Enteropathies, tuberculosis, trauma, caloric insufficiency, hypovitaminosis C or D3, herpesvirus infections 10.9.4.6 Other animals: Include as appropriate to audience 10.9.5 Experimentally produced disorders: Physical, electrophysiologic, microbiologic, or chemical alteration of any- part so as to produce an abnormal sign; must be differentiated (based on history) from signs associated w~th spontaneous diseases 10.9.6 Tnstitutional procedures for emergency or special care 10.10 Zoonoses (Describe signs and symptoms in animals and humans)
From page 84...
... A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.


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