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6 Restoring the Physical Infrastructure for Health Sciences Research
Pages 139-161

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From page 139...
... The scientific equipment and apparatus in those buildings, as well as the knowledge recorded and stored in the libraries, form the basis for the discovery of new knowledge. According to various evidence, including surveys, interviews with scientists and administrators, and legislative testimony, laboratory facilities and equipment are becoming obsolete at an alarming pace, and the deteriorating condition of the physical research infrastructure limits the quality and quantity of research that can be carried out.
From page 140...
... construction programs in the l950s and 1960s greatly expanded the physical infrastructure for all scientific research health sciences included. This period of expansion encouraged talented candidates to pursue careers in the sciences by providing the expectation of growth in research funding and adequate facilities and equipment to allow their ideas and creativity to nourish.
From page 141...
... The 19~ NSF/NIH survey reported that there was an estimated 52 million net assignable square feet (NASF) of biomedical research space at all institutions performing health research in the United States (Figure 6-1~.3 Forty-four million NASF (84 percent)
From page 142...
... Independent research organizations reported a much higher percentage of adequate or generally sufficient space for research in the biological and medical sciences than did academic institutions, with 60 to 75 percent of the organizations rating the space in these two categories. The physical condition of research facilities is related directly to the age of the structure.
From page 143...
... Led Sci (Mea SChlS) PRIVATE RESEARCH ORG Biological Sciences Medical Sciences HOSPITALS Biological Sciences Medical Sciences 143 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% _ Adequate ~3 Generally Adequate O Inadequate FIGURE 6-2 Adequapy of the amount of research space for biological and biomedical sciences.
From page 144...
... Med Sci (Mea Schl) PRIVATE RESEARCH ORG Biological Sciences Medical Sciences HOSP ITALS Biological Sciences Medical Sciences FUNDING HEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH 0% 25% 50% 75% 1 00% _ Suitable O Limited Repair Ef fective Major Repair FIGURE 6-3 Current condition of research facilities in the biological and medical sciences.3 Variances in deferral ratios existed among the types of academic institutions (doctorate granting, medical schools, colleges, and universities)
From page 145...
... 145 Go of of Ed o .
From page 146...
... Likewise, hospitals reported that they were deferring an average of $5.32 for every dollar spent on new construction in the biomedical sciences. ADEQUACY AND SUITABILITY OF RESEARCH EQUIPMENT Although it may be true that many pioneering discoveries in the health sciences were made by very simple means, scientists lacking access to proper instrumentation are limited in designing their experiments and collecting data, or they may be forced to turn away from some of the important problems of their discipline.
From page 147...
... 147 o ._ I: ._ Cal _' Go _ Al : s In Ct ._ o m c .
From page 148...
... , gifts and foundation grants, government grants and contracts, and state and local government support. Other sources of funds for capital improvements may come from research partnerships or other arrangements with industry, debt financing, and the
From page 149...
... of all new construction money (Figure ~4~.3 in contrast, 50 to 60 percent of new construction funds at medical schools, research institutions, and hospitals came from private monies or institutional funds. Ix-exempt bonds at all of these types of research organizations accounted for 17 to 30 percent of new construction funds.
From page 150...
... State support for equipment is estimated to be far smaller than the commitment to facilities construction and renovation. NIH estimates that state governments contribute only about 4 percent of the funds for biological and medical research equipment at academic institutions.6 Since many states view research as a second priority in their institutions of higher education, fewer funds are available for equipment not used in classroom instruction.
From page 151...
... .8 During the expansion of NIH in the 1950s, the physical infrastructure for scientific research had to be improved to pursue emerging scientific opportunities effectively. Then, in 1956, the Health Research Facilities Act (HRFA)
From page 152...
... The NSF Science Facilities Program also contributed to the renovation and addition of large amounts of research space during the 1960s.8 Whereas this program began by funding renovations and repair during the first couple of years, subsequent awards were made for building new and larger multidisciplinary structures as well as for purchasing stationary general purpose equipment. The program eventually was expanded beyond doctorate-granting institutions to those awarding masters degrees and to
From page 153...
... About 23 percent of these funds were used for facilities.8 Unlike direct support for facilities construction, equipment has been financed largely through funds from research project grants or shared instrument grants.6 In 196611.7 percent of research project grant funds were used to purchase permanent laboratory equipment (Table ~3~. By the mid-l97Os less than 5 percent of the funds awarded by NIH through research project grants as well as shared instrument programs were used for equipment.
From page 154...
... 1985. Academic Research Equipment and Equipment Needs in the Biological and Medical Sciences.
From page 155...
... Debt Financing Debt financing is used by academic institutions as one means of raising funds for capital improvements. Whereas debt financing by state institutions is controlled by state legislatures, private institutions use tax-exempt bonds to raise capital for facility improvements.
From page 156...
... Tax-exempt bonds are particularly attractive financial instruments for private academic institutions, because these institutions can borrow facilities construction money at interest rates below the interest income levels received on their endowments. However, restrictions in the 1986 Ax Reform Act placed a $150 million limit on outstanding bond debt for private institutions.
From page 157...
... Institutions also fund nearly as much research equipment in the biological and medical sciences as does the NIH: 37 and 38 percent, respectively.6 Unrestricted institutional funds can be used as matching funds for government facilities and equipment grants. Escalating education costs, which have continued to outpace inflation, coupled with possible declining enrollments in the l990s, inevitably will increase competition within institutions for distributing endowment earnings between educational and research needs.
From page 158...
... Over the last decade there has been a plethora of studies on the condition of academic facilities, and there is general agreement within, as well as outside, the scientific community that many research laboratories on our campuses are in disrepair. The committee concludes that even after repeated studies, no long-term federal strategy exists to restore the physical infrastructure.
From page 159...
... With large federal deficits looming in the immediate future, direct grant programs for revitalizing the physical infrastructure seem remote. Thus, it appears that we will be forced to recoup these costs through indirect means.
From page 160...
... 1985. Academic Research Equipment and Equipment Needs in the Biological and Medical Sciences.
From page 161...
... 1989. Report on Extramural Biomedical Research Facilities Construction.


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